Events on Apr 20

  • 0850Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne
  • 11392nd Lateran Council (10th ecumenical council) opens in Rome
  • 1505Jews are expelled from Orange Burgandy by Philibert of Luxembourg
  • 1551John Dudley becomes English Earl Marshal
  • 1650VOC-management sets new guidelines
  • 1653Cromwell routes English parliament to house
  • 1657Battle in Santa Cruz Bay, Tenerife: English fleet under Robert Blake sinks Spanish silver fleet
  • 1702Comet C / 1702 H1 approaches within 0.0437 AUs of Earth
  • 1770Captain Cook arrives in New South Wales
  • 1775British begin siege of Boston
  • 1777New York adopts new constitution as an independent state
  • 1792France declares war on Austria, Prussia and Sardinia
  • 1799Napoleon issues a decree calling for establishing Jerusalem for Jews
  • 1809Napoleon I defeats Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria
  • 1836Territory of Wisconsin created
  • 1853Harriet Tubman starts Underground Railroad
  • 1861Battle of Norfolk, Virginia
  • 1861Colonel Robert E Lee resigns from Union army
  • 18713rd Enforcement Act (President can suspend writ of habeas corpus)
  • 1872San Francisco Bar Association organized
  • 18791st mobile home (horse drawn) used in a journey from London and Cyprus
  • 1884Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Freemasonry"
  • 1888246 reported killed by hail in Moradabad, India
  • 1894136,000 mine workers strike in Ohio for pay increase
  • 1898US Assay Office in Deadwood, South Dakota opens
  • 1902Marie and Pierre Curie isolate radioactive element radium
  • 19037th Boston Marathon won by John Lorden of Mass in 2:41:29.8
  • 1903New York Highlanders play their 1st game, with Jack Chesbro losing 3-1 to Al Orth and Washington
  • 1904Louisiana Purchase Exposition opens in St. Louis
  • 190812th Boston Marathon won by Tom Morrissey of New York in 2:25:43.2

Born on Apr 20

  • 1494John Agricola [Schneider]: German theologist / Prime Minister
  • 1592John Eliot: St. Germans, Cornwall -- English MP / author
  • 1594Matthaus Apelles von Lowenstern: Composer
  • 1705Balthasar Schmid: Composer
  • 1725Johann Friedrich Kloffler: Composer
  • 1726Jozef de Ferraris: French / Austrian Earl / General / cartographer
  • 1745Philippe Pinel: Physician (founder of psychiatry)
  • 1748Georg Michael Telemann: Composer
  • 1748Guillaume Albert Teniers: Composer
  • 1761Johann Gottlieb Karl Spazier: Composer
  • 1808Louis-Napoleon [Napoleon III]: Emperor of France (1852-71)
  • 1809John Smith Preston: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1881
  • 1824Alfred Holt Colquitt: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1894
  • 1826Dina M Craik: Writer
  • 1827John Gibbon: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1896
  • 1839Carol I: King of Romania (1881-1914)
  • 1850Daniel Chester: French / American sculptor (Minute Man)
  • 1857Charles LP "Philip" Zilcken: Painter / author (HW Knife Day)
  • 1857Hermann Bang: Writer
  • 1858Auguste Chapuis: Composer
  • 1860Charles Gordon Curtis: US attorney / inventor (Curtis Turbine)
  • 1860Pieter Jelles Troelstra: Dutch MP (SDAP)
  • 1866Victor Hollaender: Composer
  • 1870Simeon Roncal: Composer
  • 1871William Henry Davies: Wales, United Kingdom -- Poet (Autobiography of a Super Tramp)
  • 1876Gerard J Arbous: Actor / publicist (Prince William of Orange)
  • 1879Robert Lynd: Irish writer / critic (Pleasures of Ignorance)
  • 1881Nikolai Miaskovsky: Novogeorievsk, Poland -- Composer (Kirov is With Us)
  • 1881Sem Dresden: Composer / conductor
  • 1893Harold Lloyd: Burchard, Nebraska -- Silent comic (Why Worry, Safety Last)

Died on Apr 20

  • 1164Victor IV [Ottaviano Montecello]: Italian antipope (1159-64)
  • 1314Clement V [Bertrand Got]: Pope (1305-14) move papacy to Avignon
  • 1317Agnes van Montepulciano: Italian mystic / saint
  • 1534Elizabeth Barton [St Magd van Kent]: British prophet
  • 1632Nicolas Antione: Converted to Judiasm, burned at the stake
  • 1643Christoph Demantius: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1662Gerard Terborch [the Elder]: Painter
  • 1695Georg Caspar Weckler: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1768Giovanni AC Canaletto: Italian Painter / cartoonist (Rialto), dies at 70
  • 1769Pontiac: Indian chief to Ottawa, murdered
  • 1786John Goodricke: English deaf and dumb astronomer, dies at 21
  • 1812George Clinton: 4th US VP, dies at 73, 1st VP to die in office
  • 1820Arthur Young: Author (Annals of Agriculture)
  • 1821Franz K Achard: German physicist / chemist, dies at 67
  • 1836Johan I Jozef: Monarch of Liechtenstein / Field Marshal, dies at 75
  • 1839Giuseppe Rossini: Father of Italian Composer Gioacchino Rossini
  • 1869Johann Carl Gottfried Loewe: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1869Piotr Studzinski: Composer, dies at 42
  • 1872Ljudwit Gaj: Croatian writer / Poet (Pjesma iz Zagorja), dies at 62
  • 1900Mebel Mercer: Popular British singer
  • 1906Australian wombat; oldest known marsupial: Dies in London Zoo at 26
  • 1908Henry Chadwick: Sports reporter (baseball), dies at 85
  • 1912Bram Stoker: Irish theater manager / writer (Dracula)
  • 1932Giuseppe Peano: Mathematician
  • 1935Juliaan de Vriendt: Flemish painter, dies at 92
  • 1941Barend ter Haar: Dutch lawyer, dies in Buchenwald at 49
  • 1947Christian X: King of Denmark (1912-47), dies at 76
  • 1953Erich Weinert: Writer, dies at 62
  • 1956Jaap Vranken: Organist / Composer (Stabat mater)
  • 1956Lieven Duvosel: Flemish music Composer (Levensschets), dies at 78

Historical events on April 21

  • 0953Otto I the Great gives Utrecht fishing rights
  • 1420Treaty of Saint Maartens Dike
  • 1453Turkish fleet sinks ships Golden Receiver in Constantinople
  • 1509Henry the VIII becomes King of England
  • 1521Battle at Villalar: Emperor Charles I beats Communards
  • 1526Battle at Panipat: Mogol Emperor Babur beats Sultan Ibrahim Lodi
  • 1572France and England sign anti-Spanish military covenant
  • 1649Maryland Toleration Act passed, allowing all freedom of worship
  • 1654England and Sweden sign trade agreement
  • 1689William III and Mary Stuart proclaimed King and Queen of England
  • 1739Spain and Naples-Austria sign peace accord
  • 1785Russian tsarina Catharina II ends noble privileges
  • 1789John Adams sworn in as 1st US VP (9 days before Washington)
  • 1794New York City formally declares coast of Ellis Island publically owned, so they can build forts to protect NYC from British
  • 1828Noah Webster publishes 1st American dictionary
  • 1857Alexander Douglas patents the bustle
  • 1862Congress establishes US Mint in Denver, Colorado
  • 1878New York installs 1st firehouse pole
  • 1878Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • 1878Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • 1884Potters Field reopened as Madison Park
  • 1892Black Longshoremen strike for higher wages in St. Louis, Missouri
  • 1898Spanish-American War begins
  • 1904Ty Cobb makes his pro debut for Augusta (South Atlantic League)
  • 1910Cleveland Naps play 1st game at League Park, lose to Detroit Tigers 5-0
  • 1913German passenger ship Imperator runs aground
  • 1913Gideon Sundback of Sweden patents the zipper
  • 1914US marines occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico, stay 6 months
  • 1925Chuvash Autonomous Region in RSFSR becomes Chuvash ASSR
  • 1930Fire at Ohio State Penitentiary kills 322

Born on April 21

  • 1488Ulrich von Hutten: German poet / humanist / patriot
  • 1546Arcangelo Crivelli: Composer
  • 1619John A van Riebeeck: Colonial director / founder (Cape Colony)
  • 1672Johann Philipp Kafer: Composer
  • 1713Louis Duke de Noailles: Marshal of France
  • 1729Catharina II [the Great]: Writer / emperess of Russia (1762-96)
  • 1730Antonin Kammel: Composer
  • 1749Johann Michael Malzat: Composer
  • 1774Jean-Baptiste Biot: French physicist / astronomer (balloonist)
  • 1775Alexander Anderson: United States -- Engraver / illustrator (Shakespeare)
  • 1779William Knyvett: Composer
  • 1795Vincenzo Pallotti: Italian Saint
  • 1803Levin Minn Powell: Commander (Union Navy), died in 1885
  • 1806Peter van Schendel: Dutch painter
  • 1809Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Secy State (Confederacy)
  • 1814Beni Egressy: Composer
  • 1816Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Confederate Army, died in 1874
  • 1824Anselmo Clave: Composer
  • 1828Hippolyte Taine: French philosopher / historian (Voyage in Italy)
  • 1834William Rufus Terrill: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1862
  • 1837Fredrik Bajer: Denmark -- Politican / feminist / pacifist (Nobel 1908)
  • 1840Franz Xaver Haberl: German priest / musicologist (Magister choralis)
  • 1849Oskar Hertwig: Germany -- Embryologist - discovered fertilization
  • 1853Charles-Theodore Malherbe: Composer
  • 1854Eusapia Palladino: Napolitanse with parergische phenomenons
  • 1854Wladyslaw Rzepko: Composer
  • 1864Max Weber: German sociologist / economist / historian (Ancient Judaism)
  • 1867Benjamin A Jesurun: Antillian literary
  • 1871Leo Blech: Composer
  • 1871Vojtech Rihovsky: Composer

Died on April 21

  • 1073Alexander II [Anselmo da Baggio]: Pope (1061-73)
  • 1109Anselmus: Philosopher / Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1509Henry VII: 1st Tudor King of England (1485-1509), dies at 52
  • 1552Peter Apianus [Bennewitz / Bienewitz]: German astronomer, dies at 50
  • 1652Pietro Della Valle: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1696Andres de Sola: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1730Jan Palfijn: Flemish Physician / inventor (forceps), dies at 79
  • 1736Frans Eugenius: Duke / prince of Savoye, dies at 72
  • 1871Elisabeth Grube: Writer
  • 1878Temistocle Solera: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1898Louis Theodore Gouvy: Composer, dies at 78
  • 1899Heinrich Kiepert: German cartographer / geographer, dies at 80
  • 1900Heinrich Vogl: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1910Mark Twain [Samuel Clemens]: Auther (Huckleberry Finn), dies at 74
  • 1918"Red Baron" [Manfred von Richtofen]: Shot down in WWI at 25
  • 1924Eleanora Duse: Ital actress (La Gioconda, La Locandiera), dies at 64
  • 1930Christine [Elizabeth C] Poolman: Dutch actress (Mother), dies at 79
  • 1930Robert S Bridges: Poet laureate (Testament of beauty), dies at 85
  • 1938Muhammad Iqbal: Brt E Indies lawyer / Pakistan national hero, dies at 65
  • 1939Herman Finck: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1946John M Keynes: English economist (How to pay for the war?), dies at 62
  • 1948Carlos Lopez Buchardo: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1952[Richard] Stafford Cripps: English Minister of Plane-manufacturing, dies at 62
  • 1952Leslie Banks: Actor (Henry V, 21 Days, Eye Witness), dies at 61
  • 1961James Melton: Opera tenor (Ford Festival), dies at 57
  • 1962Frederick Handley Page: Designer of 1st big airplane (40 seats)
  • 1965Edward V Appleton: English physicist (Nobel Prize 1947), dies at 72
  • 1968Norman Demuth: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1968Toby Halicki: Car-crash film producer 48, killed shooting stunt
  • 1971Edmund Lowe: Actor (Front Page Detective), dies at 81