Events on Dec 31

  • 0335St. Silvester I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 040680,000 Vandels attack the Rhine at Mainz
  • 0765Coffin of Ho-tse Shen-hui interred in a stupa built in China
  • 0870Skirmish at Englefield: Ethelred of Wessex beats Danish invasion army
  • 1492100,000 Jews expelled from Sicily
  • 1502Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupies Urbino
  • 1564Willem van Orange demands freedom of conscience / religion
  • 1600British East India Company chartered
  • 1669France and Brandenburg sign secret treaty
  • 1670France and England sign Boyne-treaty
  • 1680Amsterdam opera at Leidsegracht opens
  • 16871st Huguenots depart France to Cape of Good Hope
  • 1708Great Alliance captures Bridge
  • 1711Duke of Marlborough fired as English army commander
  • 1745Bonnie Prince Charlies army meets with de Esk
  • 1756Russia joins the Alliance of Versailles
  • 1758British expeditionary army occupies Goree (Dakar) Senegal
  • 1762Mozart family moves from Vienna to Salzburg
  • 1776Rhode Island establishes wage and price controls to curb inflation: Limit is 70 cents a day for carpenters, 42 cents for tailors
  • 1779English fleet beat Dutch Merchant vessels
  • 1781Bank of North America, 1st US bank opens
  • 1783Import of African slaves banned by all of the Northern states
  • 1805End of French Republican calendar; France returns to Gregorianism
  • 1841Alabama becomes 1st state to license dental surgeons
  • 1852Future President and Mrs Rutherford B Hayes marry
  • 1857Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa as new capital of Canada
  • 1859Dutch colony in Dutch Indies counts 4,800 slaves
  • 186122,990 mm of rain falls in Cherrapunji Assam in 1861, world record
  • 1862Battle of Murfreesboro, Tennessee
  • 1862President Lincoln signs act admitting West Virginia to Union

Born on Dec 31

  • 1378Callistus III [Alfonso the Borja]: Pope (1455-58)
  • 1514Andreas Vesalius: Brussels, Belgium -- Anatomist (Fabrica)
  • 1540Silvio Antoniano: Italian Cardinal / theologist (Tre libri)
  • 1668Hermannus Boerhaave: Dutch medical / Botanist
  • 1720Charles Edward Stuart [Bonnie Prince]: English pretender to throne
  • 1724Franz Joseph Oehlschlagel: Composer
  • 1738Charles Lord Cornwallis: Soldier / Statesman "fire when ready Gridley"
  • 1799Thomas Taglichsbeck: Composer
  • 1805Marie-C-S de Flavigny Agoult [Daniel Stern]: French author (Knife)
  • 1815George Gordon Meade: Major General (Union Army), died in 1872
  • 1818Maria J Small-Gartmann: Actress
  • 1825Francis Trowbridge Sherman: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1905
  • 1826Henry Hiles: Composer
  • 1830Ismail Pasha: Kedive of Egypt (1863-79)
  • 1838Emile Loubet: Premier / President of France (1892, 1899-1906)
  • 1846Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis: Vicar / Dutch anarchist (Right for all)
  • 1846Richard Kleinmichel: Composer
  • 1855Giovanni Pascoli: Italian classicist / poet
  • 1859Max Fiedler: Composer
  • 1863Alfredo Panzini: Italian author (Dizionario Moderno)
  • 1864Robert G Aitken: US astronomer (Binary Stars)
  • 1869Henri Matisse: France -- Impressionist painter (Odalisque)
  • 1874Ernest Austin: Composer
  • 1878Horacio Quiroga: Uruguayan author / poet (El Crimen del Otro)
  • 1880George C Marshall: Uniontown, Pennsylvania -- Authored Marshall Plan (Nobel 1953)
  • 1881Colin G Fink: US chemist (electro chemistry)
  • 1881Max Pechstein: German "entartet" painter / graphic artist (The Bridge)
  • 1882Ben Jones: Missouri, United States -- Horse trainer (Citation, Whirlaway)
  • 1882David Cohen: Dutch historian / Chairman (Jewish Council)
  • 1892Jason Robards, Sr.: Hillsdale, Michigan -- Actor (Acapulco)

Died on Dec 31

  • 0192Lucius AA Commodus: Emperor of Rome (180-192), murdered at 31
  • 0406Godagisel: King of the Vandals, dies in battle
  • 0439Melania the Younger: Roman monastery founder / saint, dies at about 56
  • 1382Daigaku: Zen teacher / 46th head of Engakuji, dies in Kamakura, Japan
  • 1384John Wycliffe: English religious Reformer / bible translator
  • 1583Thomas Erastus: Switz, theologist
  • 1616Jacques Le Maire: Pirate / explorer (Lemaire Strait), dies at 31
  • 1647Giovanni Maria Trabaci: Composer
  • 1652Frances Cecil: 2nd Wife of English Earl of Shaftesbury
  • 1719John Flamsteed: 1st Astronomer Royal, dies at 73
  • 1733Hubert K Poot: Dutch Poet (Akkerleven), dies at 44
  • 1775Richard Montgomery: General, dies fighting British
  • 1802Francis Lewis: Welsh / US Merchant / signer (Declaration of Independence), dies at 89
  • 1802Hugo Franz Karl Alexander von Kerpen: Composer, dies at 53
  • 1809Franz Ignaz Beck: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1818Jean-Pierre Duport: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1848Oliver Shaw: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1859Luigi Ricci: Composer, dies at 54
  • 1862James Edward Rains: Lawyer / Confederate Brigadier General, dies in battle at 29
  • 1862Joshua Woodrow Sill: US Union Brigadier General, dies in battle at 31
  • 1872Aleksis Kivi [Stenvall]: Finnish writer / Poet (Kanervala), dies at 38
  • 1877Alberto Mazzucato: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1877JD Gustave Courbet: French Painter (Baigneuses), dies at 58
  • 1889Ion Creanga: Romanian (fairy tales) author, dies at 52
  • 1893Jacob G de Scheffer: Dutch vicar / theologist, dies at 74
  • 1894Thomas J Stieltjes: Mathematician (Stieltjes-integral), dies at 38
  • 1907Jules de Trooz: Belgium Prime Minister, dies at 63
  • 1916Ernst Rudorff: Composer, dies at 76
  • 1920Albert Roelofs: Dutch Painter / etcher, dies at 43
  • 1936Miguel de Unamuno Jugo: Spanish philosopher / Poet (Cancionero), dies at 72

Historical events on January 1

  • 0001Origin of Christian Era
  • 0069Roman garrison of Mainz uprising
  • 0089Gov Lucius Antonius Saturninus of Germany becomes Emperor of Rome
  • 0313Start of Roman (Pontifical) Indiction
  • 0404Last gladiator competition in Rome
  • 0414King Ataulf of Narbonne marries Emperor Honorius sister Galle Placidia
  • 0722Hofmeier Charles Martel flees from Bishop Willibrord
  • 0990Russia adopts Julian calendar
  • 1430Jews of Sicily are no longer required to attend conversionist services
  • 1438Albrecht II von Habsburg becomes King of Hungary
  • 1494Juw Dekama elected potentate of Frisia
  • 1502Portuguese navigators discover Rio de Janeiro
  • 1504King Louis XII loses last bulwark in Naples, Caeta
  • 1515Jews are expelled from Laibach Austria
  • 1573Geuzen sets fire to Woudrichem
  • 15831st day of the Gregorian calendar in Holland and Flanders
  • 1610German astronomer Simon Marius 1st discovers the Jupiter moons, but does not officially report it, Galileo does on July 1 1610
  • 1622Papal Chancery adopts Jan 1 as beginning of the year (was March 25)
  • 1651Charles II Stuart crowned King of Scotland
  • 1660General Moncks army battles with the Tweed on way to London
  • 1673Regular mail delivery begins between New York and Boston
  • 1689Pro-James II-earl of Danby occupies York
  • 1700Protestant West-Europe (except England) begin using Gregorian calendar
  • 1700Russia replaces Byzantines with Julian calendar
  • 1701Great Britain and Ireland union is in effect, creating United Kingdom
  • 1707Jacob V succeeds his father Pedro II as King of Portugal
  • 1739J B C Bouvet de Lozier discovers Bouvet Island, near Antarctica
  • 1770Date of action in the opera "Madeleine"
  • 1776Gen George Washington hoists Continental Union Flag
  • 1785"Daily Universal Register" (Times of London) publishes 1st issue

Born on January 1

  • 0379Basilius [the Great of Caesarea]: Holyman (Moralia)
  • 1387Charles [the Angry One]: King of Navarra (1349-87)
  • 1431Alexander VI [Rodrigo Borgia]: Spanish / Italian Pope (1492-1503)
  • 1467Sigismund I [the old]: King of Poland
  • 1481Huldrych Zwingli: Switzerland -- Protestant Reformer
  • 1504Caspar Cruciger: German church Reformer
  • 1520Franciscus Balduinus [Francois Baudouin]: Lawyer
  • 1622Isaac Sweers: Dutch Admiral / General / Civil rights activist
  • 1628Christoph Bernhard: German composer
  • 1638Antoinette du Ligier de la Guard Deshoulieres: French poet / playwright
  • 1652Johann Krieger: Composer
  • 1697Johann Pfeiffer: Composer
  • 1714Kristijonas Donelaitis: Lutheran pastor, Lithuanian poet (The Seas)
  • 1723Christian Friedrich Gregor: Composer
  • 1729Edmund Burke: British author (Philosophy & Inquiry)
  • 1734John F E Acton: Cruel Premier of Naples
  • 1745"Mad" Anthony Wayne: General
  • 1748Giovanni Furno: Composer
  • 1752Elizabeth Griscom [Betsy] Ross: Flag maker
  • 1764John Kinker: Dutch linguist / philosopher / poet (Minderjarige Zangster)
  • 1777Micah Hawkins: Composer
  • 1784William Beale: Composer
  • 1800Sydney Nelson: Composer
  • 1800Vaclav Horak: Composer
  • 1809John Pieter Heije: Dutch Physician / writer / poet (Silver Fleet)
  • 1815Charles Renouvier: French philosopher (neocriticism)
  • 1819Arthur Hugh Clough: Poet, friend of Matthew Arnold
  • 1819George Foster Shepley: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1878
  • 1827William Lewis "Old Tige" Cabell: Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • 1831William Joseph Westbrook: Composer

Died on January 1

  • 0379Basilius the Great: Of Caesarea, Saint (Moralia)
  • 0404Telemachus: Roman monk, murdered
  • 0898Odo: Earl of Paris / King of France (888-98), dies at about 39
  • 0962Boudouin III: Count of Flanders
  • 1387Karel de Boze: King of Navarra (1349-87)
  • 1502Gregorius XIII [Ugo Buoncampagni]: Italy -- Pope (1572-85)
  • 1515Louis XII: "the Justified" King of France (1498-1515), dies at 52
  • 1559Christian III: King of Denmark / Norway (1534-59)
  • 1560Guillaume du Bellay: Sieur de Langey, French soldier
  • 1617Hendrick Goltzius: Dutch Painter / cartoonist / engraver
  • 1626Cornelis Pieterse Hoft: Amsterdam Merchant / regent, dies at 68
  • 1630Tetsugen: Zen teacher (Jodo Sect converted to Obaku Zen)
  • 1661Pieter Claesz: Dutch still life painter, dies at about 64
  • 1701Pietro Sanmartini: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1716William Wycherley: Dramatist (The Country Wife), dies at about 75
  • 1730Daniel Finch: 2nd Earl of Nottingham, dies at 82
  • 1753Louis-Maurice de La Pierre: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1758Johann F von Cronegk: German playwright (Codrus), dies at 26
  • 1766Frans E Jacobus III: Old Pretender, King of Gt Britain / Ireland
  • 1766James III Edward: Old Pretender / King of Gt Britain / Ireland, dies at 77
  • 1768Jean-Laurent Krafft: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1777Emanuele Barbella: Composer, dies at 58
  • 1782Johann Christian Bach: German Composer / Mozarts tutor, dies at 46
  • 1787Arthur Middleton: US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 44
  • 1789Christleib Siegmund Binder: Composer, dies at 65
  • 1793Francesco Guardi: Italian painter, dies at 80
  • 1800Louis J M Daubenton: France -- Zoologist, dies at 83
  • 1816Francois Alexander Sallantin: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1817Martin H Klaproth: German chemist (uranium), dies at 73
  • 1818Fedele Fenaroli: Composer, dies at 87