Events on Jan 1

  • 0001Origin of Christian Era
  • 0069Roman garrison of Mainz uprising
  • 0089Gov Lucius Antonius Saturninus of Germany becomes Emperor of Rome
  • 0313Start of Roman (Pontifical) Indiction
  • 0404Last gladiator competition in Rome
  • 0414King Ataulf of Narbonne marries Emperor Honorius sister Galle Placidia
  • 0722Hofmeier Charles Martel flees from Bishop Willibrord
  • 0990Russia adopts Julian calendar
  • 1430Jews of Sicily are no longer required to attend conversionist services
  • 1438Albrecht II von Habsburg becomes King of Hungary
  • 1494Juw Dekama elected potentate of Frisia
  • 1502Portuguese navigators discover Rio de Janeiro
  • 1504King Louis XII loses last bulwark in Naples, Caeta
  • 1515Jews are expelled from Laibach Austria
  • 1573Geuzen sets fire to Woudrichem
  • 15831st day of the Gregorian calendar in Holland and Flanders
  • 1610German astronomer Simon Marius 1st discovers the Jupiter moons, but does not officially report it, Galileo does on July 1 1610
  • 1622Papal Chancery adopts Jan 1 as beginning of the year (was March 25)
  • 1651Charles II Stuart crowned King of Scotland
  • 1660General Moncks army battles with the Tweed on way to London
  • 1673Regular mail delivery begins between New York and Boston
  • 1689Pro-James II-earl of Danby occupies York
  • 1700Protestant West-Europe (except England) begin using Gregorian calendar
  • 1700Russia replaces Byzantines with Julian calendar
  • 1701Great Britain and Ireland union is in effect, creating United Kingdom
  • 1707Jacob V succeeds his father Pedro II as King of Portugal
  • 1739J B C Bouvet de Lozier discovers Bouvet Island, near Antarctica
  • 1770Date of action in the opera "Madeleine"
  • 1776Gen George Washington hoists Continental Union Flag
  • 1785"Daily Universal Register" (Times of London) publishes 1st issue

Born on Jan 1

  • 0379Basilius [the Great of Caesarea]: Holyman (Moralia)
  • 1387Charles [the Angry One]: King of Navarra (1349-87)
  • 1431Alexander VI [Rodrigo Borgia]: Spanish / Italian Pope (1492-1503)
  • 1467Sigismund I [the old]: King of Poland
  • 1481Huldrych Zwingli: Switzerland -- Protestant Reformer
  • 1504Caspar Cruciger: German church Reformer
  • 1520Franciscus Balduinus [Francois Baudouin]: Lawyer
  • 1622Isaac Sweers: Dutch Admiral / General / Civil rights activist
  • 1628Christoph Bernhard: German composer
  • 1638Antoinette du Ligier de la Guard Deshoulieres: French poet / playwright
  • 1652Johann Krieger: Composer
  • 1697Johann Pfeiffer: Composer
  • 1714Kristijonas Donelaitis: Lutheran pastor, Lithuanian poet (The Seas)
  • 1723Christian Friedrich Gregor: Composer
  • 1729Edmund Burke: British author (Philosophy & Inquiry)
  • 1734John F E Acton: Cruel Premier of Naples
  • 1745"Mad" Anthony Wayne: General
  • 1748Giovanni Furno: Composer
  • 1752Elizabeth Griscom [Betsy] Ross: Flag maker
  • 1764John Kinker: Dutch linguist / philosopher / poet (Minderjarige Zangster)
  • 1777Micah Hawkins: Composer
  • 1784William Beale: Composer
  • 1800Sydney Nelson: Composer
  • 1800Vaclav Horak: Composer
  • 1809John Pieter Heije: Dutch Physician / writer / poet (Silver Fleet)
  • 1815Charles Renouvier: French philosopher (neocriticism)
  • 1819Arthur Hugh Clough: Poet, friend of Matthew Arnold
  • 1819George Foster Shepley: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1878
  • 1827William Lewis "Old Tige" Cabell: Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • 1831William Joseph Westbrook: Composer

Died on Jan 1

  • 0379Basilius the Great: Of Caesarea, Saint (Moralia)
  • 0404Telemachus: Roman monk, murdered
  • 0898Odo: Earl of Paris / King of France (888-98), dies at about 39
  • 0962Boudouin III: Count of Flanders
  • 1387Karel de Boze: King of Navarra (1349-87)
  • 1502Gregorius XIII [Ugo Buoncampagni]: Italy -- Pope (1572-85)
  • 1515Louis XII: "the Justified" King of France (1498-1515), dies at 52
  • 1559Christian III: King of Denmark / Norway (1534-59)
  • 1560Guillaume du Bellay: Sieur de Langey, French soldier
  • 1617Hendrick Goltzius: Dutch Painter / cartoonist / engraver
  • 1626Cornelis Pieterse Hoft: Amsterdam Merchant / regent, dies at 68
  • 1630Tetsugen: Zen teacher (Jodo Sect converted to Obaku Zen)
  • 1661Pieter Claesz: Dutch still life painter, dies at about 64
  • 1701Pietro Sanmartini: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1716William Wycherley: Dramatist (The Country Wife), dies at about 75
  • 1730Daniel Finch: 2nd Earl of Nottingham, dies at 82
  • 1753Louis-Maurice de La Pierre: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1758Johann F von Cronegk: German playwright (Codrus), dies at 26
  • 1766Frans E Jacobus III: Old Pretender, King of Gt Britain / Ireland
  • 1766James III Edward: Old Pretender / King of Gt Britain / Ireland, dies at 77
  • 1768Jean-Laurent Krafft: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1777Emanuele Barbella: Composer, dies at 58
  • 1782Johann Christian Bach: German Composer / Mozarts tutor, dies at 46
  • 1787Arthur Middleton: US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 44
  • 1789Christleib Siegmund Binder: Composer, dies at 65
  • 1793Francesco Guardi: Italian painter, dies at 80
  • 1800Louis J M Daubenton: France -- Zoologist, dies at 83
  • 1816Francois Alexander Sallantin: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1817Martin H Klaproth: German chemist (uranium), dies at 73
  • 1818Fedele Fenaroli: Composer, dies at 87

Historical events on January 2

  • 0069Roman Lower Rhine army proclaims its commander, Vitellius, Emperor
  • 0533John II begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1235Emperor Joseph II orders Jews of Galicia Austria to adopt family names
  • 1492Spain recaptures Granada from the Moors (Granada Day)
  • 1570Tsar Ivan the Terrible march to Novgorod begins
  • 1585Spain and Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville
  • 1602Battle at Kinsale, Ireland: English army beats Spanish
  • 1602Spanish force in Ireland surrender to the English at Kinsdale
  • 1678Staatsoper Hamburg opens with Theiles "Adam und Eva"
  • 1757British troops occupy Calcutta India
  • 17761st revolutionary flag displayed
  • 1776Austria ends interregation torture
  • 1788Georgia is 4th state to ratify US constitution
  • 1800Free black community of Philadelphia petitions Congress to abolish slave
  • 1811US Sen Thomas Pickering is 1st senator censured (revealed confidential documents communicated by the President of the US)
  • 1814Lord Byron completes "The Corsair"
  • 1831Liberator, abolitionist newspaper, begins publishing in Boston
  • 18321st Curling club in US (Orchard Lake Curling Club) opens
  • 18391st photo of the Moon (French photographer Louis Daguerre)
  • 18421st US wire suspension bridge for general traffic opens in Penn
  • 1861Colonel Charles Stone is put in charge of organizing DC militia
  • 1861SC seizes inactive Ft Johnson in Charleston Harbor
  • 1870Construction of Brooklyn Bridge begins
  • 1871King Amadeus I of Spain inaugurated at 25
  • 18791st Test match hat-trick, Fred Spofforth at the MCG
  • 1879British battleship Thunder explodes in Gulf of Ismid, 9 die
  • 1879Dr Benjamin E Mays, named President of Atlanta Board of Education
  • 1879Northwestern League (minor baseball league) organized, Rockford, Illinois
  • 1882Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil is organized as a trust
  • 1885Gen Wolseley receives last distress signal of General Gordon in Khartoum

Born on January 2

  • 1642Mehmed IV: Sultan of Turkey
  • 1699Osman III: Sultan of Turkey
  • 1728Louis Barbiano de Belgioioso: Austrian count / diplomat in Belgium
  • 1732Franz Xaver Brixi: Composer
  • 1752Philip Freneau: Poet of American Revolution (The American Village)
  • 1777Christian D Rauch: German sculptor
  • 1807Tomasz Napoleon Nidecki: Composer
  • 1809Friedrich Wilhelm Jahns: Composer
  • 1822Rudolph J E Clausius: Germany -- Physicist (thermodynamics)
  • 1830Henry Kingsley: English / Australian writer
  • 1831Justin Winston: Historian / librarian (Harvard)
  • 1835Charles Russell Lowell, Jr.: Brigadier General (Union volunteers)
  • 1837Mili Alexeyevich Balakirev: Nizhny-Novgorod, Russia -- Composer (Tamara)
  • 1842Amy G C A Bonet-Maury: French reformed theologist
  • 1846Sandor Erkel: Composer
  • 1857Frederick Opper: Cartoonist (Maud, Alphonse & Gaston)
  • 1857Martha Carey Thomas: Educator / President (Bryn Mawr College)
  • 1860William C Mills: Museum curator (excavated Ohio Indian mounds)
  • 1861Helen Herron Taft: 1st lady (1909-12)
  • 1870Ernst Barlach: Writer
  • 1873Anton Pannekoek: Dutch astronomer / marxist theorist (Communist Tactics)
  • 1879Johannes L "Jan" Walch: Dutch literary (Grimaces)
  • 1879Pieter Tesch: Dutch geologist (Pedestal of Nederlands)
  • 1880Louis Breguet: French aviation pioneer
  • 1885Johannes Ringers: Dutch water engineer (dikes)
  • 1886Moyshe Leyb Halpern: Galican / US poet (In New-York)
  • 1889Tito Schipa: Italy -- Tenor / composer (La Rondine)
  • 1889Walter Baldwin: Ohio, United States -- Actor (Gay Amigo)
  • 1892Lura Anson: Nebraska, United States -- Entertainer
  • 1894Robert Nathan: NYC, New York -- Poet, Novelist (Portrait of Jennie)

Died on January 2

  • 0017Publius Ovidius Naso: Roman poet
  • 1726Domenico Zipoli: Composer, dies at 37
  • 1740Johann Georg Weichenberger: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1763John Casteret Earl Granville: English Premier, dies at 72
  • 1789Franz Joseph Leonti Meyer von Schavensee: Composer, dies at 68
  • 1790Joseph A Feuchtmayer (Feichtmayer): German rococo sculptor
  • 1801Johann C Lavater: Swiss vicar / philosopher, dies at 59
  • 1803Ignaz Franz von Beecke: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1861Frederik Willem IV: King Prussia (1840-61) / German (1849-61), dies at 65
  • 1863Roger Weightman Hanson: Confederate Brigadier General, dies in battle at 35
  • 1892George B Airy: English astronomer / writer, dies at 90
  • 1904James Longstreet: Confederate General, dies at 82
  • 1915Karl Goldmark: Austria-Hungarian Composer (Queen of Saba), dies at 84
  • 1917Edward B Tylor: English anthropologist, dies at 84
  • 1918Sijbe K Bakker: Vicar / Theologist (Christian-Socialism), dies at 42
  • 1921Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg: German chancellor / Prime Minister (Prussia), dies at 64
  • 1923Sam Carter: Black resident of Rosewood Florida, lynched by KKK
  • 1929Erich Wichman[n]: Dutch fascist Painter / sculptor, dies at 38
  • 1937Ross Alexander: Actor (Captain Blood, Boulder Dam), dies at 29
  • 1941Mischa Levitzki: Composer, dies at 42
  • 1945Betram Home Ramsay: English Admiral / Cmdr Naval Forces (Normandy), dies at 61
  • 1950Emil Jannings: Actor (The Way of All Flesh), dies at 65
  • 1960Cees [Cornelis J] Laseur: Dutch actor / director (Hague Comedy), dies at 60
  • 1960Chris van Abkoude: Author (Pietje Bell, Kruimeltje), dies at about 79
  • 1960Fausto Coppi: Italian, ran world record 45, 798 km, dies at 40
  • 1963Dick Powell: Actor / director (Dick Powell Theater), dies at 58
  • 1963Jack Carson: Actor (Star is Born, Mildred Pierce), dies at 52
  • 1965Staf Gustaf Frans Nees: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1968Sanoesi Pane: Indonesian writer
  • 1969Georges Renevant: Actor (Cornered), dies after long illness at 74