Events on Jan 20

  • 0250St. Fabian ends his reign as Catholic Pope (236-50)
  • 0820Book of mother, published
  • 1045Giovanni di Sabina elected Pope Sylvester III
  • 12651st English Parliament called into session by Earl of Leicester
  • 1320Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes King of Poland
  • 1356Scottish King Edward Baliol resigns
  • 1503Casa Contratacion (Board of Trade) found (Spain) to deal with American affairs
  • 1513Christian II succeeds Johan I as Danish / Norwegian King
  • 1648Cornerstone of Amsterdam townhall laid
  • 1667Treaty of Andrussovo-ends 13 year war between Poland and Russia
  • 17781st American military court martial trial begins, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • 17811st edition of Pieter It Hoens "Post of Neder-Rhijn" published
  • 1783Hostilities cease in Revolutionary War
  • 1785Samuel Ellis advertises to sell Oyster Island (Ellis Is), no takers
  • 1788Pioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah, Georgia
  • 1801John Marshall appointed US Chief Justice
  • 1807Napoleon convenes great Sanhedrin, Paris
  • 18091st US geology book published by William Maclure
  • 1840Dutch King Willem II crowned
  • 1841China cedes Hong Kong to British
  • 1850Investigator, 1st ship to effect northwest passage, leaves England
  • 1860Dutch troops conquer Watampone in Celebes
  • 1868Florida constitutional convention meets in Tallahassee
  • 1869Elizabeth Cady Stanton becomes 1st woman to testify before Congress
  • 1870"City of Boston" vanishes at sea with all 177 aboard
  • 1870Hiram R Revels elected to fill unexpired term of Jefferson Davis
  • 1872California Stock Exchange Board organized
  • 1879British troops under Lord Chelmsford set camp at Isandlwana
  • 1883Billy Barnes takes a hat-trick, England vs. Aust MCG
  • 1887US Senate approves naval base lease of Pearl Harbor

Born on Jan 20

  • 1622Susanna van Baerle: Dutch poet / Wife of Geeraert Burns
  • 1654Michiel de Swaen: Netherlands -- Physician / poet
  • 1681Francesco Bartolomeo Conti: Composer
  • 1703Joseph-Hector Fiocco: Composer
  • 1716Carlos III: King of Naples / Spain (1759-88) Pompei / Jesuits
  • 1732Richard H Lee: US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence)
  • 1743Pascal Boyer: Composer
  • 1761Giovanni Domenico Perotti: Composer
  • 1762Jerome-Joseph de Momigny: Composer
  • 1782Johan B J F S: Archduke of Austria
  • 1806Nathaniel Willis: Writer / editor / founder (American Monthly Magazine)
  • 1809Sebastian de Iradier: Spanish composer (La Paloma)
  • 1812Ralph Pomeroy Buckland: Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1892
  • 1813Jacon Gartner Lauman: Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1867
  • 1820Anne Jemima Clough: England, United Kingdom -- Promoted higher education for women
  • 1831Pieter J Joubert: General (South Africa)
  • 1843Pierre-Paul Cambon: French diplomat (Madrid, Constantinople, London)
  • 1844Johan Peter Selmer: Composer
  • 1847W R Pettiford: Founder (Alabama Penny Savings Bank)
  • 1855Amedee-Ernest Chausson: Composer
  • 1865Friedrich A H von Waldeck: Brother of Queen Emma / last ruler of Waldeck
  • 1866Richard Le Gallienne: English writer (Maker of Gainborg)
  • 1870Guillaume Jean Joseph Nicolas Lekeu: Composer
  • 1873Charles A Ellwood: United States -- Sociologist / psychologist
  • 1873Johannes V Jensen: Denmark -- Novelist / poet (Energy Storage, Nobel 1944)
  • 1877Ruth St Denis: Newark, New Jersey -- Ballerina (Dances of the 5 Senses)
  • 1878Finlay Currie: Scotland, United Kingdom -- Actor (Quo Vadis, Ivanhoe, Avengers)
  • 1883Betram Home Ramsay: English Admiral / Commander Allied Naval Forces
  • 1884A[braham P] Merritt: United States -- Sci-fi author (Moon Pool, Creep Shadow!)
  • 1888Leadbelly: Louisiana, United States -- Blues 12 string guitarist (Rock Island Line)

Died on Jan 20

  • 0250Fabianus: Pope (236-50) / saint
  • 0842Theophilus: Byzantine kaiser (829-42)
  • 0882Louis II / III the Younger: German King (876-82)
  • 1479John II: King of Aragon / Navarra, dies at 81
  • 1612Rudolf II von Habsburg: Emperor of Germany (1576-1612), dies at 59
  • 1639Mustapha I: Sultan of Turkey (1622-23)
  • 1666Anna of Austria: Queen of France / Daughter of Philip III, dies at 64
  • 1691Christian de Placker: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1713Pavao Vitezovic: Croatian historian
  • 1727John van Bylevelt: Catholic apostole
  • 1745Charles VII Albert: German Emperor (1742-45), dies at 47
  • 1779John Burman: Dutch Botanist / director (botanical gardens), dies at 71
  • 1789Johann Christoph Oley: Composer, dies at 50
  • 1798Christian Cannabich: German Composer / royal chaplain master, dies at 66
  • 1813C M Wieland: Writer, dies at 79
  • 1819Carlos IV: King of Spain (1788-1808), dies at 70
  • 1830Michal Bogdanowicz: Composer, dies at 50
  • 1837John Soane: English Architect (Book of Designs), dies at 84
  • 1838Pierre-Louis Hus-Desforges: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1857Edward Francis Fitzwilliam: Composer, dies at 32
  • 1859B v Arnim: Writer, dies at 73
  • 1859Bettina Brentano: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1862Felix Zollicoffer: General killed after mistakenly riding into Union lines
  • 1882John Linnell: British Painter / minaturist / engraver
  • 1890Franz Paul Lachner: Composer, dies at 86
  • 1891David Kalakahua: Emperor of Hawaii
  • 1896Heinrich M von Battenberg: German son-in-law of Victoria, dies at 37
  • 1900John Ruskin: English writer (Dearest Mama Talbot), dies of flu at 81
  • 1900Richard D Blackmore: English Novelist (Lorna Doone), dies at 74
  • 1905Stanislaw Pilinski: Composer, dies at 65

Historical events on January 21

  • 1077German King Heinrich IV petitions Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness
  • 1189Philip II, Henry II and Richard Lion hearted initiate 3rd Crusade
  • 1276Pierre de Tarantaise elected Pope Innocence V
  • 1324Zen Buddhist religious debate between Tendai and Shingon
  • 1522Head inquisitor Adrian Florisz Boeyens elected pope
  • 1542Parliament passes bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard
  • 1604Tsar Ivan IV defeats False Dmitri, who claims to be the true tsar
  • 16771st medical publication in America (pamphlet on smallpox), Boston
  • 1732Russia and Persia sign Treaty of Riascha
  • 1793Prussia and Russia sign partition treaty (Poland divided)
  • 1813Pineapple introduced to Hawaii (or 01 / 111)
  • 1821Paramaribo Suriname catches fire, 4 die
  • 1824Ashantees defeat British at Accra, West Africa
  • 1827Freedom Journal, 1st Black paper, begins publishing
  • 1830Portsmouth (Ohio) blacks forcibly deported
  • 1853Envelope-folding machine patented by Russell Hawes, Worcester, Massachusetts
  • 1861Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and 4 other southern senators resign
  • 1863City of Dublin leases part of Cattle Market for 100,000 years
  • 18801st US sewage disposal system separate from storm drains, Memphis
  • 1887Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) forms
  • 18901st issue of Propria Cures, Amsterdam student-weekly newspaper
  • 1894Oscar Fredriksen skates world record 500m in 47.8 seconds
  • 1903"Wizard of Oz, " premieres in New York City
  • 1903Harry Houdini escapes police station Halvemaansteeg in Amsterdam
  • 1903International Theater (Majestic, Park) opens at 5 Columbus Circle New York City
  • 1907Kenora Thistles sweep Mont Wanderers in 2 for Stanley Cup
  • 1908New York City regulation makes it illegal for a woman to smoke in public
  • 1910British-Russian military intervention in Persia
  • 1913Aristide Briand forms French government
  • 1915Kiwanis International founded in Detroit

Born on January 21

  • 1337Charles V [the Wise]: King of France (1364-80)
  • 1571John I Pontanus: Physicist / historian (Amsterdam)
  • 1659Adriaen van der Werff: Dutch portrait painter / engraver / architect
  • 1735Johann Gottfried Eckard: Composer
  • 1743John Fitch: Inventor (had a working steamboat years before Fulton)
  • 1751Josephus Andreas Fodor: Composer
  • 1759Johan Valckenaer: Dutch politician / patriot
  • 1762Giuseppe Antonio Silvani: Composer
  • 1771Arnold A Buyskes: Dutch Vice-Admiral / colonial director
  • 1775Manuel Garcia: Composer
  • 1792Tsjalling Hiddes Halbertsma: Fries story teller (Rhymes & Tales)
  • 1796John Gelinde van Blom: Frisian notary / author
  • 1801Ramon Vilanova y Barrera: Composer
  • 1814Thomas Attwood Walmisley: Composer
  • 1815Horace Wells: Dentist (pioneered use of medical anethesia)
  • 1821John Cabell Breckinridge: (D) 14th US VP (1857-61) / Major General (Confed)
  • 1823Alexandre Edouard Goria: Composer
  • 1824Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson: Lieutenant General 2nd Corps (ANV, Confed)
  • 1829Oscar II Frederik: King of Sweden (1872-1907) / Norway (-1905) / poet
  • 1840Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake: Pioneer English woman Physician
  • 1848Henri Duparc: French composer
  • 1855John M Browning: United States -- Weapons manufacturer
  • 1859Antoni Wincenty Rutkowski: Composer
  • 1867James Marcus: Actor (Eagle, Little Lord Fauntleroy, Lone Avenger)
  • 1867Maxime Weygard: French General / Governor-General (Algeria)
  • 1867Willem C Royaards: Dutch theater director (Summer Games)
  • 1872Frans Beelaerts van Blokland: Dutch Foreign Minister
  • 1872Jonkhr Frans Beelaerts van Blokland: Dutch Foreign Minister
  • 1875John Lindworsky: German Jesuit / psychologist (Der Wille)
  • 1875Paul E Kahle: Germany -- Professor of Oriental Studies

Died on January 21

  • 0879Boudouin with the Iron Arm: Earl of Flanders
  • 1118Paschalis II [Raniero]: Pope (1099-1118)
  • 1596John Ligarius: German Theologist / Prime Minister, dies at 66
  • 1609Joseph Justus Scaliger: French inventor of "Julian Period", dies at 68
  • 1665Domenico Mazzocchi: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1670Honorat de Brueil seigneur de Racan: French playwright, dies at 80
  • 1683Anthony Ashley Cooper: 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, dies at 61
  • 1686Nicolas-Francois Blondel: French architect
  • 1704Willem B Schepers: Dutch Merchant / ship owner, dies at about 83
  • 1746Gottfried Kirkhoff: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1774Mustapha III: Sultan of Turkey (1957-74), dies at 56
  • 1793Louis XVI: French King (1774-93), beheaded by revolutionaries at 38
  • 1815M Claudius: Writer, dies at 74
  • 1831Achim v Arnim: Writer, dies at 49
  • 1851Gustav Albert Lortzing: Composer, dies at 49
  • 1871John J Rochussen: Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies (1845-51), dies at 73
  • 1872Franz Grillparzer: Austrian playwright (Sappho / Libussa), dies at 81
  • 1882Anton Emil Titl: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1883Jacopo Tomadini: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1884Auguste Franchomme: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1888Stephan Hale Alonzo Marsh: Composer, dies at 83
  • 1891Calixa Lavallee: Composer, dies at 48
  • 1892John Couch Adams: English co-discoverer of Neptune
  • 1894Guillaume Jean Joseph Nicolas Lekeu: Composer, dies at 24
  • 1903Hermanus J A M Schaepman: Dutch clergyman / politician, dies at 58
  • 1924Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin: Russian leader, dies of a stroke at 53
  • 1926Camillo Golgi: Ital medical research (malaria, Nobel 1906), dies at 81
  • 1927Floris H Verster: Dutch Painter / cartoonist / etcher, dies at 65
  • 1931Felix Blumenfeld: Composer, dies at 67
  • 1932[Giles] Lytton Strachey: British biographer / critic, dies at 51