Events on Jan 21

  • 1077German King Heinrich IV petitions Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness
  • 1189Philip II, Henry II and Richard Lion hearted initiate 3rd Crusade
  • 1276Pierre de Tarantaise elected Pope Innocence V
  • 1324Zen Buddhist religious debate between Tendai and Shingon
  • 1522Head inquisitor Adrian Florisz Boeyens elected pope
  • 1542Parliament passes bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard
  • 1604Tsar Ivan IV defeats False Dmitri, who claims to be the true tsar
  • 16771st medical publication in America (pamphlet on smallpox), Boston
  • 1732Russia and Persia sign Treaty of Riascha
  • 1793Prussia and Russia sign partition treaty (Poland divided)
  • 1813Pineapple introduced to Hawaii (or 01 / 111)
  • 1821Paramaribo Suriname catches fire, 4 die
  • 1824Ashantees defeat British at Accra, West Africa
  • 1827Freedom Journal, 1st Black paper, begins publishing
  • 1830Portsmouth (Ohio) blacks forcibly deported
  • 1853Envelope-folding machine patented by Russell Hawes, Worcester, Massachusetts
  • 1861Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and 4 other southern senators resign
  • 1863City of Dublin leases part of Cattle Market for 100,000 years
  • 18801st US sewage disposal system separate from storm drains, Memphis
  • 1887Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) forms
  • 18901st issue of Propria Cures, Amsterdam student-weekly newspaper
  • 1894Oscar Fredriksen skates world record 500m in 47.8 seconds
  • 1903"Wizard of Oz, " premieres in New York City
  • 1903Harry Houdini escapes police station Halvemaansteeg in Amsterdam
  • 1903International Theater (Majestic, Park) opens at 5 Columbus Circle New York City
  • 1907Kenora Thistles sweep Mont Wanderers in 2 for Stanley Cup
  • 1908New York City regulation makes it illegal for a woman to smoke in public
  • 1910British-Russian military intervention in Persia
  • 1913Aristide Briand forms French government
  • 1915Kiwanis International founded in Detroit

Born on Jan 21

  • 1337Charles V [the Wise]: King of France (1364-80)
  • 1571John I Pontanus: Physicist / historian (Amsterdam)
  • 1659Adriaen van der Werff: Dutch portrait painter / engraver / architect
  • 1735Johann Gottfried Eckard: Composer
  • 1743John Fitch: Inventor (had a working steamboat years before Fulton)
  • 1751Josephus Andreas Fodor: Composer
  • 1759Johan Valckenaer: Dutch politician / patriot
  • 1762Giuseppe Antonio Silvani: Composer
  • 1771Arnold A Buyskes: Dutch Vice-Admiral / colonial director
  • 1775Manuel Garcia: Composer
  • 1792Tsjalling Hiddes Halbertsma: Fries story teller (Rhymes & Tales)
  • 1796John Gelinde van Blom: Frisian notary / author
  • 1801Ramon Vilanova y Barrera: Composer
  • 1814Thomas Attwood Walmisley: Composer
  • 1815Horace Wells: Dentist (pioneered use of medical anethesia)
  • 1821John Cabell Breckinridge: (D) 14th US VP (1857-61) / Major General (Confed)
  • 1823Alexandre Edouard Goria: Composer
  • 1824Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson: Lieutenant General 2nd Corps (ANV, Confed)
  • 1829Oscar II Frederik: King of Sweden (1872-1907) / Norway (-1905) / poet
  • 1840Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake: Pioneer English woman Physician
  • 1848Henri Duparc: French composer
  • 1855John M Browning: United States -- Weapons manufacturer
  • 1859Antoni Wincenty Rutkowski: Composer
  • 1867James Marcus: Actor (Eagle, Little Lord Fauntleroy, Lone Avenger)
  • 1867Maxime Weygard: French General / Governor-General (Algeria)
  • 1867Willem C Royaards: Dutch theater director (Summer Games)
  • 1872Frans Beelaerts van Blokland: Dutch Foreign Minister
  • 1872Jonkhr Frans Beelaerts van Blokland: Dutch Foreign Minister
  • 1875John Lindworsky: German Jesuit / psychologist (Der Wille)
  • 1875Paul E Kahle: Germany -- Professor of Oriental Studies

Died on Jan 21

  • 0879Boudouin with the Iron Arm: Earl of Flanders
  • 1118Paschalis II [Raniero]: Pope (1099-1118)
  • 1596John Ligarius: German Theologist / Prime Minister, dies at 66
  • 1609Joseph Justus Scaliger: French inventor of "Julian Period", dies at 68
  • 1665Domenico Mazzocchi: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1670Honorat de Brueil seigneur de Racan: French playwright, dies at 80
  • 1683Anthony Ashley Cooper: 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, dies at 61
  • 1686Nicolas-Francois Blondel: French architect
  • 1704Willem B Schepers: Dutch Merchant / ship owner, dies at about 83
  • 1746Gottfried Kirkhoff: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1774Mustapha III: Sultan of Turkey (1957-74), dies at 56
  • 1793Louis XVI: French King (1774-93), beheaded by revolutionaries at 38
  • 1815M Claudius: Writer, dies at 74
  • 1831Achim v Arnim: Writer, dies at 49
  • 1851Gustav Albert Lortzing: Composer, dies at 49
  • 1871John J Rochussen: Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies (1845-51), dies at 73
  • 1872Franz Grillparzer: Austrian playwright (Sappho / Libussa), dies at 81
  • 1882Anton Emil Titl: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1883Jacopo Tomadini: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1884Auguste Franchomme: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1888Stephan Hale Alonzo Marsh: Composer, dies at 83
  • 1891Calixa Lavallee: Composer, dies at 48
  • 1892John Couch Adams: English co-discoverer of Neptune
  • 1894Guillaume Jean Joseph Nicolas Lekeu: Composer, dies at 24
  • 1903Hermanus J A M Schaepman: Dutch clergyman / politician, dies at 58
  • 1924Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin: Russian leader, dies of a stroke at 53
  • 1926Camillo Golgi: Ital medical research (malaria, Nobel 1906), dies at 81
  • 1927Floris H Verster: Dutch Painter / cartoonist / etcher, dies at 65
  • 1931Felix Blumenfeld: Composer, dies at 67
  • 1932[Giles] Lytton Strachey: British biographer / critic, dies at 51

Historical events on January 22

  • 0871Battle at Basing: Danish invasion army beats Ethelred of Wessex
  • 1371King Robert II Stuart of Scotland crowned
  • 1510Jews are expelled from Colmar Germany
  • 1517Turks conquer Cairo
  • 1528England and France declare war on Emperor Charles V
  • 1575English Queen Elizabeth I grants Thomas Tallis and William Byrd music press monopoly
  • 1584Parts of Switzerland adopt Gregorian Calendar
  • 1588Pope Sixtus V decrees "Immense aeterni" (Reformed curia)
  • 1673Postal service between New York and Boston inaugurated
  • 1689Lord Halifax becomes Speaker of English House of Lords
  • 1689Prince Willem III calls English parliament together
  • 1690Iroquois tribes renew allegiance to British against French
  • 1760Battle at Wandewash India: British troops beat French
  • 1771Spain cedes Falkland Islands to Britain
  • 1775Marshal Oscar von Lubomirski expels Jews from Warsaw Poland
  • 1798Coup of Midderigh
  • 1813Americans capture Frenchtown, Canada
  • 18141st Knights Templar grand encampment in US held, New York City
  • 1816Lord Byron completes "Parisina" and"Siege of Corinth"
  • 1817English freighter Diana sinks off Malaysia
  • 1831Charles Darwin takes his Bachelors of Art exam
  • 1837Earthquake in southern Syria kills thousands
  • 1850Alta California becomes a daily paper, 1st such in California
  • 1857National Association of Baseball Players founded, New York
  • 1862Confederate government raises premium for volunteers from $10 to $20
  • 1873Britains SS Northfleet sinks at Dungeness England, 300 die
  • 1879James Shields (D) elected US senator from Missouri after previously serving as US senator from Illinois and Minnesota
  • 1879Zulus attack British Army camp in Isandhlwana South Africa
  • 1883England complete 1st innings victory in Tests vs. Aust MCG
  • 1890Jose Marti forms La Liga (Union of Cuban exiles) in New York City

Born on January 22

  • 1440Ivan III [the Great]: Russian Czar (1462-1505) / conquered Lithuania
  • 1561Francis Bacon: England, United Kingdom -- Statesman / essayist (Novum Organum)
  • 1571Robert Bruce Cotton: English antiquary, politician
  • 1592Pierre Gassendi: Champtercier Provence, France -- Scientist / philosopher
  • 1649Pascal Collasse: Composer
  • 1655Geleyn Evertsen: Lieutenant Admiral (Zealand)
  • 1707Carl Hockh: Composer
  • 1709Joseph Reipel: Composer
  • 1727Claude-Benigne Balbastre: Composer
  • 1729G E Lessing: Writer
  • 1729Giuseppe Luigi Tibaldi: Composer
  • 1729Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Germany -- Critic / dramatist
  • 1748Lewis Edson: Composer
  • 1753Peter Fuchs: Composer
  • 1756Vincenzo Righini: Composer
  • 1779Stefano Pavesi: Composer
  • 1781Francois-Antoine Habeneck: Composer
  • 1788Lord [George Gordon Noel] Byron: England, United Kingdom -- Romantic poet (Don Juan)
  • 1802Richard Upjohn: United States -- Gothic architect (Trinity Chapel, NY)
  • 1815Ferdinand Christian Wilhelm Praeger: Composer
  • 1820Hermann von Lingg: German playwright / poet
  • 1820Johan Hendrik Koelman: Portrait painter (Jahresringe)
  • 1824Josef Leopold Zvonar: Composer
  • 1826[Merriwether] Jeff Thompson: Partisan (Confederate Army), died in 1876
  • 1842Charles Henri Marechal: Composer
  • 1845Jacob Verdam: Dutch philologist
  • 1845Paul Vidal de la Blanche: France -- Geographer
  • 1848Samuel Muller Fzn: Dutch historian / archivist (Middle Ages)
  • 1849August Strindberg: Sweden -- Dramatist / Novelist (Apologia)
  • 1855Ernst Kullak: Composer

Died on January 22

  • 1336Louis III: Last Earl of Loon
  • 1531Andrea del Sarto: Italian painter, dies at 44
  • 1552Edward Seymour: Duke of Somerset, beheaded for treason
  • 1581Joost de Damhoudere: Flemish lawyer
  • 1581Seerp Galama: Dutch nobleman / military / politician, dies at 52
  • 1599Cristofano Malvezzi: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1640Erasmus Quellinus I: Flemish wood carver, dies at about 55
  • 1700Jacob Balthasar Schutz: Composer, dies at 39
  • 1781Johann Siebenkas: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1796Bernhard Hupfeld: Composer, dies at 78
  • 1798Lewis Morris: US farmer (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 71
  • 1798Matija A Reljkovic: Croatian writer (Satire of Wild Man), dies at 66
  • 1799Horace B de Saussure: Swiss physicist / geologist / alpinist, dies at 58
  • 1847Georges-Julien Sieber: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1850Vincenzo Pallotti: Italian saint, dies at 54
  • 1852George Rodwell: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1868Moritz Ganz: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1879Anthony Durnford: British Colonel, dies in battle
  • 1879George Shepstone: British political affiliate, dies in battle
  • 1893Vincenz Lachner: Composer, dies at 81
  • 1895Edward Solomon: Composer, dies at 39
  • 1909Richard A C E Erlenmeyer: German chemist, dies at 83
  • 1913Ferdinand van der Haeghen: Flemish librarian / bibliographer, dies at 82
  • 1914Frederik Rung: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1916Iwan Knorr: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1922Benedictus XV [Giacomo Markies D Chiesa]: Pope (1914-22), dies at 67
  • 1936Louis Glass: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1942Reimond Tollenaere: Leader Flemishch National Front, dies at 81
  • 1942Walter Richard Sickert: British Painter (Free House!), dies at 81
  • 1945A Wolfenstein: Writer, dies at 61