Events on Feb 20

  • 1547King Edward VI of England was enthroned following death of Henry VIII
  • 1613Gerard Reynst appointed Dutch Governor-General of East-Indies
  • 1653Defeat of Dutch fleet under Admiral Van Tromp by Admiral Blake off Portsmouth
  • 16731st recorded wine auction held (London)
  • 1710Johan Willem Friso becomes Viceroy of Groningen Neth
  • 1732Estates of Holland ratifies Treaty of Vienna
  • 1737French Minister of Finance, Chauvelin, resigns
  • 1745Bonnie Prince Charlies troops occupy Fort August, Scotland
  • 17681st American chartered fire insurance company opens (Penn)
  • 1809Supreme Court rules federal government power greater than any state
  • 1811Austria declares bankruptcy
  • 1831Polish revolutionaries defeat Russians in battle of Growchow
  • 1832Charles Darwin visits Fernando Noronha in Atlantic Ocean
  • 1839Congress prohibits dueling in District of Columbia
  • 1846British occupy Sikh citadel of Lahore
  • 1856John Rutledge, Liverpool-NY steamer, hits iceberg; many die
  • 1861Department of Navy of Confederacy forms
  • 1861Steeple of Chichester Cathedral blown down during a storm
  • 1864Civil War battle of Olustee, Florida
  • 1865M I T forms 1st US collegiate architectural school
  • 1869Tenn Gov W C Brownlow declares martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis
  • 1872Hydraulic electric elevator patented by Cyrus Baldwin
  • 1872Luther Crowell patents a machine that manufactures paper bags
  • 1872Metropolitan Museum of Art opens (NYC)
  • 1872Silas Noble and JP Cooley patents toothpick manufacturing machine
  • 1873University of California gets its 1st Med School (UC / SF)
  • 18771st cantilever bridge in US completed, Harrodsburg, Kentucky
  • 1877International Association (minor baseball league) organizes
  • 18871st minor league baseball association organizes (Pittsburgh)
  • 1887Germany, Austria-Hungary and France end Triple Alliance

Born on Feb 20

  • 1494Johan Friis: Chancellor (Denmark, helped formed Lutheranism)
  • 1507Gentile Bellini: Italian artist (Sultan Mohammed II)
  • 1523Jan Blahoslav: Czechoslovakia -- Humanist / Bishop (Bohemian brothers)
  • 1632Thomas Osborne: Duke of Leeds, English Prime Minister (1690-94) / founder (Tories)
  • 1633Jan de Baen: Portrait painter / etcher
  • 1734Franz Ignaz Beck: Composer
  • 1745Johann Peter Salomon: Composer
  • 1752Charles Broche: Composer
  • 1770Ferdinando Carulli: Composer
  • 1784Adam Black: Edinburgh, Scotland -- Politician / publisher
  • 1791Carl Czerny: Vienna, Austria -- Pianist / composer (Schule der Virtuosen)
  • 1796Eduard W van Dam van Isselt: Dutch military / liberal politician
  • 1802Charles-Auguste de Beriot: Belgian violinist / composer
  • 1803Friedrich Theodor Frohlich: Composer
  • 1805Angelina Grimke: Reformer / abolitionist / politician / lawyer
  • 1808Daumier: Marseilles, France -- Artist
  • 1809Albertus J Duymaer van Twist: Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies
  • 1809Henry Walton Wessells: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1889
  • 1816Josef Michal Ksawery Jan Poniatowski: Composer
  • 1820Mahlon Dickerson Manson: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1895
  • 1827Edward Stuyvesant Bragg: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1912
  • 1838James Barbour Terrill: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1864
  • 1844Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann: Austria -- Physicist (statistical mechanics)
  • 1854Louis F M van Westerhoven: Actor / singer / opera director (Youth)
  • 1861Nicolaas van Meeteren: Folklorist
  • 1870Pieter Cornelis Boutens: Holland, Netherlands -- Mystic poet / Scholar (Verzen)
  • 1874Mary Garden: Aberdeen, Scotland -- Opera star
  • 1876Fyodor Akimenko: Composer
  • 1883Shiga Naoya: Japan -- Novelist (Road Through Dark Night)
  • 1886Bela Kun: Cehu Silvaniei, Romania -- Head of Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919)

Died on Feb 20

  • 1054Yaroslav I [the Wise]: Ruler (Kiev)
  • 1194Tancredo of Lecce: King of Sicily
  • 1431Martinus V [Oddo Colonna]: Italian Pope
  • 1569Mark van Vaernewijck: Flemish nobleman / politician, dies at 50
  • 1595Ernst: Archduke of Austria, dies at 41
  • 1628Gregor Aichinger: German Composer / organist, dies at about 63
  • 1656James Ussher: Irish bible Scholar / anglican Archbishop, dies at 76
  • 1667David ben Samuel Halevi: Rabbi / Author (Shulchan Aruch)
  • 1731Frederich Karl Erbach: Composer, dies at 50
  • 1737Elizabeth Rowe: Poet
  • 1746Guillaume Coustou, Sr.: French Sculptor (Mary Leszczynska), dies at 68
  • 1773Charles Emanuel I: King of Sardinia / Duke of Savoy (CE III), dies at 71
  • 1786Johann Wolfgang Kleinknecht: Composer, dies at 70
  • 1788Gijsbert John van Hardenbroeck: Dutch regent (Utrecht), dies at 68
  • 1790Joseph II: Emperor of Holy Roman empire, dies at 48
  • 1809Johann Joseph Emmert: Composer, dies at 76
  • 1810Johann Friedrich Kranz: Composer, dies at 57
  • 1817Martin de Ron: Composer, dies at 27
  • 1845Pavel Ivanovich Dulgorukov: Composer, dies at 57
  • 1848[Willem] Alexander FCNM: Prince of the Netherlands / General Major, dies at 29
  • 1851Josef Alois Ladurner: Composer, dies at 81
  • 1855Joseph Hume: Social reformer
  • 1860Henry Drummond: English banker / religious leader, dies at 69
  • 1892Hermann Kopp: German chemist (Law of Kopp), dies at 74
  • 1895Frederick Douglass: Escaped slave, anti-slavery leader, dies at 77
  • 1904Gustav Adolf Heinze: Composer, dies at 83
  • 1907[Ferdinand-Frederic-]Henri Moissan: Chemist (Nobel 1906), dies at 54
  • 1910Boetros Ghali: Egyptian Premier, murdered
  • 1911Alexander Alexandrovich Kopilov: Composer, dies at 56
  • 1911Peter Nicolai von Wilm: Composer, dies at 76

Historical events on February 21

  • 1173Pope Alexander III canonizes Thomas Becket Absp of Canterbury
  • 1431England begins trial against Joan of Arc
  • 1574Spanish garrison of Middelburg Neth surrenders
  • 1583Groningen Neth begins using Gregorian calendar
  • 1598Boris Godunov crowned tsar
  • 1613Michael Romanov, Son of Patriarch of Moscow, elected Russian tsar
  • 1673Michiel A de Ruyter appointed Lieutenant Admiral General of Dutch fleet
  • 1675Prince Willem III appointed Viceroy of Gelderland
  • 1764John Wilkes thrown out of Engl House of Commons for "Essay on Women"
  • 1777English ambassador Joseph Yorke demands dismissal of Governor John de Graaff for saluting US flag
  • 1782US Congress resolves establishment of a US mint
  • 1792Congress passes Presidential Succession Act
  • 1795Freedom of worship established in France under constitution
  • 1797Trinidad, West Indies surrenders to British
  • 18281st American Indian newspaper in US, "Cherokee Phoenix, " published
  • 18421st known sewing machine patented in US, John Greenough, Washington DC
  • 18461st US woman telegrapher, Sarah G Bagley, Lowell, Massachusetts
  • 1853US authorizes minting of $3 gold pieces
  • 1857Congress outlaws foreign currency as legal tender in US
  • 1857US issues flying eagle cents
  • 1858Edwin T Holmes installs 1st electric burglar alarm (Boston, Massachusetts)
  • 1861Navaho indians elect Herrero Grande as chief
  • 1862Confederate Constitution and presidency are declared permanent
  • 1862Texas Rangers win Confederate victory at Battle of Val Verde, New Mexico
  • 18641st US Catholic parish church for blacks dedicated, Baltimore
  • 1866Lucy B Hobbs (Taylor) becomes 1st US woman to earn a DDS degree
  • 1874Benjamin Disraeli replaces William Gladstone as English Premier
  • 1874Oakland Daily Tribune begins publication
  • 18781st telephone book issued, 50 subscribers (New Harbor, Connecticut)
  • 18832nd French government of Ferry begins

Born on February 21

  • 1417Louis IX: Duke of Bayern (University of Ingolstadt)
  • 1484Joachim I Nestor: Elector (Brandenburg, Constitution)
  • 1556Sethus Calvisius: Composer
  • 1674Johann Augustin Kobelius: Composer
  • 1684Justus van Effen: Writer / founder (Holland Spectator)
  • 1690Christoph Stoltzenberg: Composer
  • 1710Willem van Haren: Frisian nobleman / poet (Human Life)
  • 1728Peter III: Kiel, Germany -- Russian tsar (1762) / husband of Catherine
  • 1730Charles L Fournier: Flemish writer / painter
  • 1744Eise J Eisinga: Frisia, built planetarium Franeker
  • 1776Vincenzo Lavigna: Composer
  • 1779Friedrich C von Savigny: German lawyer
  • 1785Karl A Varnhagen von Ense: German officer / author (Die Sterner)
  • 1795Francisco Manuel da Silva: Composer
  • 1800John Henry Winder: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1865
  • 1801Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda: Composer
  • 1801John Henry Newman: England, United Kingdom -- Cardinal / author (Dream of Gerontius)
  • 1802George Douglas Ramsey: Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1882
  • 1805David Tod: US diplomat / (Gov-R-Ohio, 1861-63)
  • 1814Nicolo Gabrielli: Composer
  • 1815Ernest Meissonier: French painter / sculptor
  • 1817Jose Zorrilla y Moral: Vallodolid, Spain -- Poet / dramatist (El rey Loco)
  • 1821Charles Scribner: United States -- Music publisher (Scribner Catalog)
  • 1829Johnson Hagood: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1898
  • 1831Eduard Rappoldi: Composer
  • 1836Clement-Philibert-Leo Delibes: Composer
  • 1836Emil Hartmann: Composer
  • 1844Charles-Marie Widor: Lyon, France -- Composer / Professor (Paris Conservatory)
  • 1852[James] Burner Matthews: US playwright / critic (NY Times)
  • 1855Alice Freeman Palmer: Educator (Hall of Fame)

Died on February 21

  • 0556Maximianus van Ravenna: Bishop (Basilica S Stefano)
  • 1513Julius II [Giuliano dellea Rovere]: Pope (1503-13), dies at 69
  • 1554Hieronymus Bock: German doctor (founder of modern botany)
  • 1624Dirck van Baburen: Dutch Painter (Sepulture), dies at about 28
  • 1648Christian IV: King of Denmark / Norway
  • 1653Adriaen Pauw: Master of Heemstede / Dutch Grand Pensionary, dies at 71
  • 1677[Benedictus] Baruch Spinoza: Philosopher, dies at 44
  • 1684Pieter van den Abeelen: Dutch medallist / jeweller, dies at about 75
  • 1689Isaacus Vossius: Dutch [Isaac Vos], librarian
  • 1711Joan van Hoorn: Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies (1707-09), dies at 57
  • 1790Johann Friedrich Kloffler: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1803Edward Despard: Last person drawn and quartered in England
  • 1842Wojciech Zywny: Composer, dies at 85
  • 1862Justinus A C Kerner: German family doctor / Poet / writer, dies at 75
  • 1864Jeffery Forrest: US Confederate Brigadier General, dies in battle
  • 1872Pavel P Gagarin: Russian monarch / politician, dies at 82
  • 1876Henry John Gauntlett: Composer, dies at 70
  • 1879Peter P van Bosse: Dutch liberal Minister of Finance, dies at 69
  • 1884John Pike Hullah: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1894Gustave Caillebotte: French shipbuilding designer / painter, dies at 45
  • 1919Giovanni Bolzoni: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1919Habib Ullah Chan: Emir of Afghanistam (1901-19), murdered at 46
  • 1919Karl von Hohenzollern: Prince of Belgium
  • 1919Kurt Eisner: Premier Bayern (soc), murdered at 51
  • 1924Salvatore Auteri Manzocchi: Composer, dies at 78
  • 1925Alfred Baldwin Sloan: Composer, dies at 52
  • 1926Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: Dutch physicist (Nobel 1913), dies at 72
  • 1938Albert Huybrechts: Composer, dies at 39
  • 1938George Ellery Hale: Astronomer
  • 1945Eric Liddell: Scottish runner (1924 Olympics - Gold Medalist), dies at 43