Events on Feb 23

  • 0303Emperor Diocletian orders general persecution of Christians
  • 1455Johannes Gutenberg prints 1st book, Bible (estimated date)
  • 1574France begins 5th holy war against Huguenots
  • 1660Charles XI becomes King of Sweden
  • 1668Fire in Wiener Hofburg in Vienna, Emperor Leopold I rescued
  • 1672Joan Blaeus publishers destroyed by fire in Amsterdam
  • 1689Dutch Prince William III proclaimed King of England
  • 1778Baron von Steuben joins Continental Army at Valley Forge
  • 1792Humane Society of Massachusetts incorporated (erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners)
  • 1804Conspirators against Napoleon, for restoration of Louis XVIII
  • 18131st US raw cotton-to-cloth mill founded in Waltham, Massachusetts
  • 1820Cato Street conspiracy uncovered
  • 1821College of Apothecaries organized in Phil; 1st US pharmacy college
  • 1822Boston is incorporated as a city
  • 1836Alamo besieged by Santa Anna; entire garrison eventually killed
  • 1846Polish revolutionaries march on Cracow, but are defeated
  • 1854Great-Britain and Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein
  • 1861By popular referendum, Texas becomes 7th state to secede from US
  • 1861Dutch Premier Floris A van Hall resigns
  • 1861Pres-elect Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington DC to take office
  • 1869Louisiana Governor signs public accommodations law
  • 1870Mississippi is readmitted to US
  • 1874Major Walter Winfield patents game called "sphairistike" (lawn tennis)
  • 1883Alabama becomes 1st US state to enact an antitrust law
  • 1883American Anti-Vivisection Society organized (Philadelphia)
  • 1886Aluminum manufacturing process developed
  • 1887Congress grants Seal Rocks to San Francisco
  • 1887French / Italian Riviera struck by Earthquake; 2,000 die
  • 18921st college student government forms at Bryn Mawr Penn
  • 1895Jaap Eden skates world record 10km (17:56)

Born on Feb 23

  • 1417Paul II [Pietro Barbo]: Italy -- Pope (1464-71)
  • 1614Jacob Colijns: Dutch coat of arms painter
  • 1615Cornelis Galle II: Flemish engraver / illustrator, baptised
  • 1633Samuel Pepys: London, England -- Navy expert / composer (Diary, Memoirs)
  • 1649John Blow: Composer of 1st English opera (Venus & Adonis)
  • 1700Wilhelmus Schortinghuis: Dutch theologist (Profound Christianity)
  • 1730Christian Joseph Lidarti: Composer
  • 1734Mayer Amschel Rothschild: Frankfurt, Germany -- Founder (House of Rothschild)
  • 1776John Walter II: London, England -- Chief proprietor (The Times, 1812-47)
  • 1787Emma Willard: United States -- Opens school for young ladies (Hall of Fame)
  • 1792Istvan Ferenczi: Hungarian sculptor
  • 1811George Washington Hewitt: Composer
  • 1817George Watts: London, England -- Painter
  • 1818Jeremy F Gilmer: Major General / Chief Engineer Confederate War Department
  • 1824Lewis Cass Hunt: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1886
  • 1831Hendrik W Mesdag: Dutch painter (Panorama Mesdag)
  • 1834Gustav Hermann Nachtigal: German Physician / colonizer / consul in Tunis
  • 1838Gilbert Moxley Sorrel: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1901
  • 1840Carl Menger: Austrian economist
  • 1848Thomas Paine Westendorf: Composer
  • 1863Franz von Stuck: German painter (Der Krieg)
  • 1865Barney Dreyfuss: Baseball owner (Pittsburgh Pirates)
  • 1868William E B Du Bois: Massachusetts, United States -- Civil rights writer (Souls of Black Folk)
  • 1869Nadezhda Konstantinova Krupskaya: Russian revolutionary (Soc-Dem)
  • 1873Dmitri Arakishvili: Composer
  • 1875Jozef E Stokvis: Journalist / Dutch MP (SDAP)
  • 1876Agnes M Royden: Writer
  • 1879Agnes Arber: English biologist / philosopher (Mind & the Eye)
  • 1879Norman Lindsay: Creswick, Victoria -- Artist / Novelist
  • 1880Edgar Istel: Composer

Died on Feb 23

  • 0155Polycarp: Disciple of Apostle John, arrested and burned at stake
  • 1447Eugene IV [Gabriele Condulmer]: Italian Pope (1431-47)
  • 1468John Gutenberg: German inventor (boekdrukkunst)
  • 1607Herman Herbertsz: Vicar, dies at about 60
  • 1669Lieuwe van Aitzema: Frisian historian, dies at 68
  • 1682Abraham de Wicquefort: Dutch diplomat / historian, dies at 75
  • 1704Georg Muffat: French / German Organist / composer, dies at 50
  • 1766Stanislaw Leszcynski: Duke of Lutherans / King of Poland
  • 1792Joshua Reynolds: English portrait Painter (Simplicity), dies at 68
  • 1806John Alcock: Composer, dies at 90
  • 1807Francois Guichard: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1821John Keats: Romantic poet, dies of tuberculosis at 25 in Rome
  • 1821Marie-Anne Collot: French sculptor
  • 1848John Quincy Adams: 6th US President (1825-1829), dies of a stroke at 80
  • 1855Carl Friedrich Gauss: Mathematician
  • 1867George Thomas Smart: Composer, dies at 90
  • 1884Tambo Tambo: Australian aboriginal / US circus attaction, dies at 23
  • 1897Woldemar Bargiel: Composer, dies at 68
  • 1900William Butterfield: Architect of the Gothic revival
  • 1902Samuel R Gardiner: British Historian (Oliver Cromwell), dies at 72
  • 1903Albert Cahen: Composer, dies at 57
  • 1903Friedrich Grutzmacher: Composer, dies at 70
  • 1906Johann Hoch: US murderer, executed
  • 1915Robert Smalls: Reconstruction congressman, dies at 75 in South Carolina
  • 1916George Clement Martin: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1924Thomas Woodrow Wilson: 28th US President (1913-21)
  • 1927Sveinbjorn Sveinbjornsson: Composer, dies at 79
  • 1930Horst Wessel: German Nazi lyricist (Fahne Hoch), dies at 22
  • 1930Mabel Normand: Actress / director (Extra Girl), dies at 35
  • 1931Nellie Melba [Helen Mitchell]: Australian soprano

Historical events on February 24

  • 03031st official Roman edict for persecution of Christians issued
  • 1208St. Francis of Assisi, 26, received his vocation in Portiuncula Italy
  • 1296Pope Boniface VIII degree Clericis Iaicos
  • 1510Pope Julius II excommunicates the Republic of Venice
  • 1525Francois I caught taken / 8700 killed
  • 1525Imperial forces defeat French in battle of Pavia
  • 1527Ferdinand of Austria crowned as King of Bohemia
  • 15301st imperial coronation by a Pope, Charles V crowned by Clement V
  • 1552Privileges of Hanseatic League in England are abrogated
  • 1582Pope Gregory XIII announces New Style (Gregorian) calendar
  • 1597Flemish Painter Frederick of Valckenborch becomes porter of Frankfurt-on-Main
  • 1613English Princess Elizabeth marries Earl Frederik of Palts
  • 1708Prince Johan Willem Friso sworn in as Viceroy of Groningen
  • 1779George Rogers Clark captures Vincennes (Ind) from British
  • 1786Charles Cornwallis appointed Governor-General of India
  • 1793French troops conquer Breda
  • 1803Supreme Court 1st rules a law unconstitutional (Marbury vs. Madison)
  • 180717 die and 15 wounded in a crush to witness execution of Holloway, Heggerty and Elizabeth Godfrey in England
  • 1821Mexico gains independence from Spain
  • 1835Siwinowe Kesibwi (Shawnee Sun) is 1st Indian language monthly magazine
  • 18363,000 Mexicans attack 182 Texans at Alamo, lasts 13 days
  • 1839Steam shovel patented by William Otis, Philadelphia
  • 1848King Louis-Philippe abdicates, 2nd French Republic declared
  • 1855US Court of Claims forms for cases against government
  • 18571st perforated US postage stamps delivered to government
  • 1857LA Vineyard Society organized
  • 1863Arizona Territory created
  • 18681st US parade with floats (Mardi Gras-Mobile Alabama)
  • 1868House of Reps vote 126 to 47, to impeach President Andrew Johnson
  • 1888Louisville, Ky becomes 1st government in US to adopt Australian ballot

Born on February 24

  • 1304Muhammad ibn Battutah: Arab travel writer (Travels in Asia and Africa)
  • 1463Giovanni Pico della Mirandola: Italy -- Scholar / platonist
  • 1500Carlos V: King of Spain (1516-56) / Holy Roman Emperor
  • 1501Sixtus Birck [Xystus Betulius]: German writer (Suzanna)
  • 1536Clement VIII [Ippolito Aldofireini]: Fano, Italy -- Pope (1592-1605)
  • 1547Jan of Austria: Spanish military man / land guardian of the Netherland
  • 1557Matthias: Vienna, Austria -- Holy Roman Emperor (1612-19)
  • 1595Matthias C Sarbiewski [Sarbievius]: Polish Jesuit / poet
  • 1697Bernard S Albinus [Weiss]: German surgeon / anatomist
  • 1704Hubert Renotte: Composer
  • 1717Bernhard Hupfeld: Composer
  • 1766Samuel Wesley: Bristol, England -- Composer / Organist (Exultate Deo)
  • 1771Johann Baptist Cramer: German / British pianist / composer / publisher
  • 1797Samuel Lover: Composer
  • 1809Edwin H K Freiherr von Manteuffel: Governor / Viceroy (Elzas-Lutherian)
  • 1811Daniel A Payne: Bishop / Reformer / educator of AME Church
  • 1811Edward Dickinson Baker: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1861
  • 1824John Crawford Vaughn: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1875
  • 1827Charles Davis Jameson: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1862
  • 1831Georg Leo Earl von Caprivi: German chancellor / Premier of Prussia
  • 1833Eduard Earl von Taaffe: Austrian Premier (1868..93)
  • 1836Winslow Homer: United States -- Painter (Gulfstream)
  • 1838Thomas Benton Smith: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1923
  • 1842Arrigio Enrico Boito: Composer
  • 1846Luigi Denza: Composer
  • 1848C Grant B Allen: Canadian writer (Woman Who Did)
  • 1848Johanna C P Barbiers: Actress (Voddenraper of Paris)
  • 1852George A Moore: Ireland -- Painter / Novelist (Esther Waters)
  • 1854Franz Courtens: Flemish painter (Golden Rain)
  • 1858Arnold Dolmetsch: Le Mans, France -- Musician

Died on February 24

  • 1563Francois Guise: French General / duke, assassinated at 44
  • 1666Nicholas Lanier: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1686Ferdinando Tacca: Italian Painter / Son of Pietro Tacca, dies at 66
  • 1692Antimo Liberati: Composer, dies at 74
  • 1704Marc-Antoine Charpentier: French Composer (church music)
  • 1735Georg Friedrich Kauffman: Composer, dies at 56
  • 1784Anton Laube: Composer, dies at 65
  • 1785Carlo Bonaparte: Corsican attorney, dies at 39
  • 1799Broerius Brorius: Theologist (Pensive Christian), dies at about 41
  • 1799Georg C Lichtenberg: German physicist / writer, dies at 56
  • 1806John Nieuwenhuijzen: Theologist (Society for General Use), dies at 81
  • 1810Henry Cavendish: Physicist / chemist
  • 1812Hugo Kollataj: Polish teacher / minister, dies at 61
  • 1815Robert Fulton: Steamboat pioneer
  • 1825Thomas Bowdler: Self-appointed Shakespearean censor
  • 1829Auguste Chouteau: St. Louis co-founder
  • 1862Bernard S Ingemann: Danish Author (Holger Danske), dies at 72
  • 1874Anselmo Clave: Composer, dies at 49
  • 1876Jan Pieter Heije: Dutch Physician / writer / poet, dies at 67
  • 1895Ignaz Lachner: Composer, dies at 87
  • 1907Otto Goldschmidt: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1919Josephine McGill: Composer, dies at 41
  • 1922Dmitri B Shostakovitch: Father of Russian Composer Dmitri D S
  • 1924Edmond Picard: French / Belg writer (Ambidextre journalist), dies at 87
  • 1926Eddie Plank: Pitcher (won 327 games in 17 years), dies at 51
  • 1929Andre-Charles-Prosper Messager: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1930Jacobus van Looy: Dutch writer / Painter (Night Cactus), dies at 74
  • 1933Spottiswoode Aitken: Actor (Eagle, Home Sweet Home), dies at 64
  • 1941Oskar Loerke: German director (Longest Day-1926), dies at 56
  • 1944Leo H A Baekeland: Belgian / US chemist (bakeliet), dies at 80