Events on Mar 12

  • 1000Odo of Lagery elected as Pope Urban II, replacing Victor III
  • 1054Pope Leo IX escapes captivity and returns to Rome
  • 1144Gherardo Caccianemici elected Pope Lucius II, succeeding Callistus II
  • 1350Orvieto city says it will behead and burn Jewish-Christian couples
  • 1365University of Vienna founded
  • 1496Jews are expelled from Syria
  • 1594Company of Distant established for business on East-Indies
  • 1597England routes troops to Amiens
  • 1609Bermuda becomes an English colony
  • 1619Dutch settlement on Java changes name to Batavia
  • 1622Ignatius of Loyola declared a Saint
  • 1642Abel Tasman is 1st European in New Zealand
  • 16641st naturalization act in American colonies
  • 1664New Jersey becomes a British colony
  • 1689Former English King James II lands in Ireland
  • 17551st steam engine in America installed, to pump water from a mine
  • 1773Jeanne Baptiste Pointe de Sable found settlement now known as Chicago
  • 1799Austria declares war on France
  • 18482nd Republic established in France
  • 18491st gold seekers arrive in Nicaragua en route to California
  • 18501st US $20 gold piece issued
  • 1860Congress accepts Pre-emption Bill: free land in West for colonists
  • 1865Affair near Lone Jack, Missouri
  • 1867Last French troops leave Mexico
  • 1868Britain annexed Basutoland in Africa
  • 1868Great Britain annexes Basutoland in Africa
  • 1877British annex Walvis Bay in southern Africa
  • 1877Great Britain annexes Walvis Bay at Cape colony
  • 1884Mississippi establishes 1st US state college for women
  • 1889Battle at Metema (Gallabad): Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV, defeated

Born on Mar 12

  • 1336Eduard: Duke of Gelre (1361-71) husband of Catharina of Bayern
  • 1515Caspar Othmayr: Composer
  • 1685George Berkeley: Ireland -- Philosopher / Bishop of Cloyne
  • 1710Thomas Augustine Arne: English composer (Alfred, Rule Britannia)
  • 1755Georges Couthon: French politician
  • 1768Carolus Antonius Fodor: Composer
  • 1793Augustin-Philippe Peellaert: Composer
  • 1800Louis-Prosper Gachard: Belgian historian
  • 1806Jane Means Appleton Pierce: 1st lady (1853-57)
  • 1808Gerrit van der Linde Jz [Schoolmaster]: Dutch poet
  • 1816David Stuart: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1868
  • 1818John Lorimar Worden: Captain (Union Navy), died in 1897
  • 1821Luitpold von Bayern: Prince-regent of Bayern
  • 1823William Flank Perry: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1901
  • 1824Gustav R Kirchoff: Prussia -- Physicist (spectral analysis)
  • 1826Robert Lowry: Composer
  • 1827John Robert Jones: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1901
  • 1827William Richard Terry: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1897
  • 1830William Felix Brantley: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1870
  • 1831Clement Studebaker: Automobile pioneer (Studebaker)
  • 1832Charles Boycott: Ireland -- Estate manager / caused boycotts
  • 1835Simon Newcomb: United States -- Scientist / mathematician / astronomer
  • 1837Felix Alexandre Guilmant: Composer
  • 1838William Perkin: Inventor (1st artificial dye)
  • 1848Cyrill Kistler: Composer
  • 1859Josef Cyril Sychra: Composer
  • 1860Salvatore Di Giacomo: Composer
  • 1862Jane Delano: United States -- Nurse / teacher / founder (Red Cross)
  • 1863Adolf A Wolfschoon: Poet
  • 1874Edmund Eysler: Austrian composer

Died on Mar 12

  • 0417Innocent I: Italian Pope (401-417)
  • 0604Gregory I the Great: Pope (590-604), dies at 64
  • 1209Djamal al-din Abu Mohammed Iljas Nizami: Persian poet
  • 1471Dionysius the Carthusian / van Rijkel: Dutch scholastic theologist
  • 1496Johannes de Lapide [Johan Heynlin]: German philosopher
  • 1507Cesare Borgia: Cardinal / soldier / politician, killed in battle at 31
  • 1570Jacob van den Eynden: Grand Pensionary of Holland
  • 1648Tirso de Molina: Spanish author, dies at about 63
  • 1681French van Mieris [the Elder]: Dutch genre painter, dies at 45
  • 1734Antonius Schultingh [Schultingius]: Dutch lawyer, dies at 74
  • 1753George Berkeley: Philosopher / Bishop (Cloyne), dies on 68th birthday
  • 1824Heinrich Carl Ebell: Composer, dies at 48
  • 1831Johann Franz Volkert: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1832Daniel Friedrich Kuhlau: German / Danish opera composer, dies at 45
  • 1834Karl W Feuerbach: Mathematician (circle of Feuerbach), dies at 33
  • 1840Friedrich Westenholz: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1852Juan Bros y Bertomel: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1877Crystobal Oudrid y Segura: Composer, dies at 52
  • 1888Henry Bergh: Founder (ASPCA), dies at 76
  • 1889Yohannes IV [Kasa]: Emperor of Ethiopia (1872-89), dies in battle
  • 1902John Peter Altgeld: German / US Governor of Illinois, dies at 54
  • 1905Rudolf von Alt: Austrian painter, dies at 92
  • 1909Johanna "Lena" Bakker: Dutch actress / Wife of Bruno Gerlach, dies at 34
  • 1913Joseph Bayer: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1914George Westinghouse: US engineer (Westinghouse Electric), dies at 67
  • 1916M v Ebner-Eschenbach: Writer, dies at 39
  • 1924Hilaire Comte de Chardonnet: Inventor (rayon)
  • 1925Sun Yat-Sen: Chinese revolutionary President, dies at 58
  • 1932Ivar Kreuger: "Swedish Match King" industrialist, commits suicide
  • 1937Charles-Marie-Jean-Albert Widor: French Organist / composer, dies at 93

Historical events on March 13

  • 0483St. Felix III begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1138German King Koenraad II von Hohenstaufen crowned
  • 1560Spanish fleet occupies Djerba, at Tripoli
  • 1564Cardinal Granvelle flees Brussels
  • 1567Battle at Oosterweel: Spanish troops destroy Geuzenleger
  • 1569Battle of Jarnac, Count of Anjou defeats Huguenots
  • 1591Battle at Tondibi: Moroccans army under Judar beats Sultan Askia Ishaq II of Songhai
  • 1639Cambridge College renamed Harvard for clergyman John Harvard
  • 1656Jews are denied the right to build a synagogue in New Amsterdam
  • 1677Massachusetts gains title to Maine for $6,000
  • 17351st US Moravian bishop, David Nitschmann, consecrated in Germany
  • 1781Sir William Herschel sees "comet" (really discovered Uranus)
  • 1790John Martin, 1st American-born actor, performs in Philadelphia
  • 1835Charles Darwin departs Valparaiso for Andes crossing
  • 1852Uncle Sam cartoon figure made its debut in the New York Lantern weekly
  • 1861Jefferson Davis signs bill authorizing use of slaves as soldiers
  • 1865US Confederate Congress calls on black slaves for field service
  • 1868Senate begins President Andrew Johnson impeachment trial
  • 1869Arkansas legislature passes anti-Klan law
  • 1878Oxford defeats Cambridge in their 1st golf match
  • 1884Siege of Khartoum Sudan begins
  • 1884US adopts Standard Time
  • 1887Chester Greenwood of Maine patents earmuffs
  • 1888Great Blizzard of 1888 rages
  • 1894J L Johnstone of England invents horse racing starting gate
  • 1895Spanish cruiser Reina Regente sinks off Gibraltar, 402 die
  • 1900British troops occupy Bloemfontein, Orange-Free state
  • 1904Bronze statue of Christ on Argentine-Chilian border dedicated
  • 1911Stanley Cup: Ottawa Senators beat Galt (Ont), 7-4
  • 1912Stanley Cup: Quebec Bulldogs sweep Moncton (NB) in 2 games

Born on March 13

  • 1548Sasbout Vosmeer: Dutch Catholic theologist / apostole
  • 1599Johannes Berchmans: Dutch Jesuit / Saint
  • 1615Innocent XII [Antonio Pignatelli]: Pope (1691-1700)
  • 1696Louis F A D Duke de Richelieu: French marshal
  • 1700James Kent: Composer
  • 1700Michel Blavet: Composer
  • 1712Isfrid Kayser: Composer
  • 1733Joseph Priestly: England, United Kingdom -- Clergyman / Scientist (discovered oxygen)
  • 1741Jozef II: Archduke of Austria / RC German Emperor (1765-90)
  • 1744David Allan: Scottish painter
  • 1746Maurus Haberhauer: Composer
  • 1752Josef Reicha: Composer
  • 1764Charles Earl Grey: (Whig), British Prime Minister (1830-34)
  • 1767Heinrich Domnich: Composer
  • 1768Charles Louis WJ van Keverberg: Dutch civil servant
  • 1770Daniel Lambert: England, United Kingdom -- Giant (weighed 739 lbs (334 kg) at death)
  • 1779Oliver Shaw: Composer
  • 1781Karl F Schinkel: German architect / painter / writer (Schloss Tegel)
  • 1798Abigail Powers Fillmore: 1st lady (1850-53)
  • 1818Albion Parris Howe: Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1897
  • 1820Louis Herbert: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1901
  • 1822Moritz Grave von Strachwitz: German poet
  • 1832Alberto Randegger: Composer
  • 1850Emilio Serrano y Ruiz: Composer
  • 1855Percival "Percy" Lowell: US astronomer (predicted discovery of Pluto)
  • 1858Maximilien Luce: French painter
  • 1862Vasily Mikhaylovich Metallov: Composer
  • 1872Oswald Garrison Villard: American journalist
  • 1875Maria E G "Lizzy" Ansingh: Dutch painter (Caught Sultane)
  • 1881Balthazar H Verhagen: Netherlands -- South African dramatist / writer

Died on March 13

  • 1202Mieszko III [the Elder]: Grand Duke of Poland (1173-77, 1200-02)
  • 1516Vladislav II Jagiello: King of Bohemia (1490-1516), dies at 60
  • 1558Jean Fernel: French Physician / physiologist
  • 1619Richard Burbage: English actor (Shakespeare)
  • 1716Georg Gabriel Schutz: Composer, dies at 46
  • 1756Johann Melchior Conradi: Composer, dies at 81
  • 1817Matej Sojka: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1837Nikita P Panin: Russian diplomat / Minister of Foreign Affairs, dies at 66
  • 1839Robert Gallenberg: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1879Adolf Anderssen: German world champ chess (1851..66), dies at 60
  • 1881Alexander II: Tsar of Russia, assassinated at 62
  • 1890Henry Wylde: Composer, dies at 67
  • 1901Benjamin Harrison: 23rd President (1889-1893), dies in Indianapolis at 67
  • 1903Nicolas Beets [Hildebrand]: Dutch writer (Camera Obscura), dies at 88
  • 1906Susan B[rownell] Anthony: American suffragist, dies at 85
  • 1911Jacob M van Bemmelen: Dutch physicist / chemist, dies at 80
  • 1915Sergei J Witte: Dutch count / Premier of Russia, dies at 65
  • 1918Karel Stecker: Composer, dies at 57
  • 1930Mary E W Freeman: US writer (Pembroke), dies at 77
  • 1934Fritz Cortolezis: Composer, dies at 56
  • 1938Clarence S Darrow: Scopes Monkey Trial attorney, dies in Chicago at 80
  • 1941A Coenradi: Dutch resistance fighter, executed
  • 1941Bernard Ijzerdraat: Dutch resistance fighter, executed
  • 1941E Hellendoorn: Dutch resistance fighter, executed
  • 1941J Eyl: Dutch resistance fighter, executed
  • 1945Herbert Bedford: Composer, dies at 78
  • 1946Abraham Bredius: Dutch art Historian (Rembrandt), dies at 90
  • 1946Thomas Frederick Dunhill: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1946Werner von Blomberg: German Minister of Reichswehr, dies at 67
  • 1951Alfred Hugenberg: German RC President of the Directorate of Krupp / media magnate