Events on Mar 20

  • 1345Saturn / Jupiter / Mars-conjunction: thought "cause of plague epidemic"
  • 1598French King Henri IV and Duke van Mercour sign treaty
  • 1602United Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) forms
  • 1616Walter Raleigh released from Tower of London to seek gold in Guyana
  • 1627France and Spain signs accord for fighting protestantism
  • 1697Willem de Vlamingh returns to Batavia after exploring "South Land"
  • 1760Great Fire of Boston destroys 349 buildings
  • 1800French army defeats Turks at Helipolis Turkey, and advance to Cairo
  • 1814Prince Willem Frederik becomes Monarch of the Netherlands
  • 1815Napoleon enters Paris after escape from Elba, begins 100-day rule
  • 1816US Supreme Court affirms its right to review state court decisions
  • 1833US and Siam sign commercial treaty
  • 1848King Louis I of Bayern abdicates to marry dancer Lola Montez
  • 1863Battle of Pensacola Florida - evacuated by Federals
  • 18652nd day of Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina
  • 1868Jesse James Gang robs bank in Russelville Kentucky of $14,000
  • 1883Unity treaty of Paris signed: protects industrial property
  • 1885John Matzeliger of Suriname patents shoe lacing machine
  • 1885Yiddish theater opens in New York with Golldfaden operetta
  • 18861st AC power plant in US begins commercial operation, Massachusetts
  • 1888Start of the Sherlock Holmes Adventure, "A Scandal in Bohemia"
  • 1890German Emperor Wilhelm II fires Republic chancellor Otto Von Bismarck
  • 1896Marines land in Nicaragua to protect US citizens
  • 1896Uprising in Matabeleland
  • 18971st known intercollegiate basketball game, Yale beats Penn 32-10
  • 18971st US orthodox Jewish Rabbinical seminary (RIETS) incorporates in New York
  • 1897France signs treaty with Emperor Menelik II of Abyssinia
  • 1911National Squash Tennis Association forms (NYC)
  • 1911Winter Garden Theater opens at 1634 Broadway, New York City
  • 19141st international figure-skating tournament held in US, New Haven

Born on Mar 20

  • 1634Balthasar Bekker: Frisian theologist (Examiner of Comets)
  • 1728Franciscus L Kersteman: Dutch lawyer / astrologist
  • 1739Eligio Celestino: Composer
  • 1750Martinus van Marum: Dutch chemist / physicist (Homo Diluvii Testus)
  • 1774John Braham: Composer
  • 1804Neal Dow: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1897
  • 1811George Caleb Bingham: United States -- Politician / painter (Country Election)
  • 1812George Bibb Crittenden: Major General (Confederate Army), died in 1880
  • 1813Matthias Keller: Ulm, Germany -- Hymm writer (O Farther un High)
  • 1820Alexander J Cuza: Monarch of Moldavia / Wallachia / Romania
  • 1823John Echols: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1896
  • 1825William Nelson Rector Beall: Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • 1826Carel Vosmaer: Dutch art historian / poet / editor
  • 1828Henrik Ibsen: Norway -- Playwright (Peer Gynt, Hedda Gabler)
  • 1829Charles Albert White: Composer
  • 1830Eugene Asa Carr: Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1910
  • 1833Henry Southwick Perkins: Composer
  • 1834Charles William Elliot: Boston, Massachusetts -- President of Harvard (1869-1909)
  • 1846Auguste Bender: Writer
  • 1853George Godfrey: Chelsea, Massachusetts -- Heavyweight boxer (Old Chocolate)
  • 1856Frederick Winslow Taylor: Father of scientific management
  • 1863Ernesto Nazareth: Composer
  • 1868Obe Postma: Frisian poet / geography / historian (Frisian Clay Farm)
  • 1870Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck: Prussian General / politician (East Africa)
  • 1872Bernhard Seklas: Composer
  • 1872Karin Michaelis: Writer
  • 1873Sergei V Rachmaninov: Russian / US pianist / composer (Aleko)
  • 1883Colin Campbell: Falkirk, Scotland -- Actress (High Bright Sun, Leather Boys)
  • 1883Karl Hasse: Composer
  • 1885Eugen Herrigel: Germany -- Philosopher / early pioneer of Zen in Europe

Died on Mar 20

  • 0842Alfonso II the Chaste: King of Asturia (791-842)
  • 1191Clement III [Paolo Scolari]: Pope (1187-91, 3rd crusades)
  • 1351Mohammed ibn-Tughluq: Sultan of Delhi India
  • 1393Johannes Nepomucenus [Jan Nepomucky]: Czech saint, killed
  • 1415Henry IV Bolingbroke: King of England (1399-1413), dies at 45
  • 1501Jean Carondelet: Lawyer / chancellor of Burgundy (1480-96), dies at 72
  • 1531Sicke Freerks / Frericx [Cutter]: Dutch anabaptist, beheaded
  • 1549Thomas Seymour of Sudely: English Lord Admiral, beheaded
  • 1568Albrecht von Hohenzollern: 1st Duke of Prussia, dies at 77
  • 1617Franciscus Aguilon: Physicist / Theologist / mathematician, dies at 50
  • 1619Matthias II: Holy Roman Catholic Emperor (1611-19)
  • 1646Matthew Vossius: Historian (Annales Holland Zelandiaeque), dies at 35
  • 1703Johann Kunckel / Kunkel: German Alchemist / ambassador to Sweden
  • 1727Issac Newton: English physicist / astronomer, dies in London at 84
  • 1751Frederick Louis: English Prince of Wales / Son of George I
  • 1757Johann Paul Kunzen: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1767Firmin Abauzit: French huguenot / scholar, dies at 87
  • 1804Ignaz Malzat: Composer, dies at 47
  • 1812Jan Ladislav Dussek: Bohemian pianist / composer, dies at 52
  • 1848Abraham des Amorie van der Hoeven: Dutch Theologist / poet, dies at 27
  • 1866Rikard Nordraak: Composer, dies at 23
  • 1871Antonio Buzzolla: Composer, dies at 56
  • 1873Adolfe Louis Eugene Fetis: Composer, dies at 52
  • 1874Hans Christian Lumbye: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1892Arthor Goring Thomas: Composer, dies at 41
  • 1894Lajos Kossuth: Hungarian freedom fighter / President (1849), dies at 91
  • 1899Martha M Place: Of Brooklyn, becomes 1st woman to die by electrocution
  • 1911Jean-Theodore Radoux: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1913Christian Barnekow: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1913Song Jiao-ren: Leader Chinese Guomindang-Party

Historical events on March 21

  • 13493,000 Jews killed in Black Death riots in Efurt Germany
  • 1421Battle of Beauge-French beat British
  • 1492Alonzo Pietro, pilot, sailed with Columbus
  • 1610King James I addresses English House of Commons
  • 16813rd Exclusion Parliament meets in London
  • 1697Czar Peter the Great begins tour through West-Europe
  • 1702Queen Anne Stuart addresses English parliament
  • 1788Fire destroyed 856 buildings in New Orleans, Louisiana
  • 1788Gustavus Vassa petitions Queen Charlotte, to free enslaved Africans
  • 1790Thomas Jefferson reports to President Washington in New York as Secretary of State
  • 1791Captain Hopley Yeaton of NH becomes 1st commissioned officer in USN
  • 1804French civil Code of Napoleon adopted
  • 1824Fire at Cairo ammunitions dump kills 4,000 horses
  • 1835Charles Darwin and Mariano Gonzales meet at Portillo Pass
  • 1843Preacher William Miller of Mass predicts the world will end today
  • 1851Yosemite Valley discovered in California
  • 1857Earthquake hits Tokyo; about 107,000 die
  • 18591st Zoological Society incorporates (Philadelphia)
  • 1859Scottish National Gallery opens in Edinburgh
  • 1859Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 1st in US, incorporated
  • 1860US extradition treaty with Sweden
  • 1863Naval Engagement at Havana Cuba-USS Henrick Hudson vs. BR Wild Pigeon
  • 1865Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
  • 1871Journalist Henry M Stanley begins his famous expedition to Africa
  • 18852nd French government of Ferry resigns
  • 1890Austrian Jewish communities are defined by law
  • 1891A Hatfield marries a McCoy, ends long feud in West Virginia it started with an accusation of pig-stealing and lasted 20 years
  • 1899British and French accord about West-Africa
  • 1907US invades Honduras
  • 1914US Ladies Figure Skating championship won by Theresa Weld

Born on March 21

  • 1466French van Brederode: Leader Hoeksen
  • 1474Angela Merici: Italian monastery founder / Saint
  • 1521Mauritius: Duke / nice Monarch of Saksen (1547-53)
  • 1527Hermann Finck: Composer
  • 1609Jan II Kazimierz: Cardinal / King of Poland (1648-68)
  • 1624Francois Roberday: Composer
  • 1642Georg Schmezer: Composer
  • 1708Caspar Ruetz: Composer
  • 1713Francis Lewis: Signer (Declaration of Independence)
  • 1716Josef Ferdinand Norbert Seger: Composer
  • 1763Jean Paul: Writer
  • 1765Henry Fagel: Dutch / English Baron / diplomat
  • 1768Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier: Mathematician / Egyptologist
  • 1779Alexis Garaude: Composer
  • 1813James Jesse Strang: King of Mormons on Beaver Island, MI (1850-56)
  • 1816Charlotte Bronte: Novelist / poet
  • 1820Frank Mori: Composer
  • 1836Jesus Monasterio: Composer
  • 1863Hugo Kaun: Composer
  • 1866Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Maury: Astronomer
  • 1869Albert Kahn: Architect ( originated modern factory design)
  • 1869Florenz Ziegfeld: Producer (Ziegfield Follies)
  • 1878Thurlow Weed Lieurance: Composer
  • 1880Hans Hofmann: German / US painter (Search for the Real)
  • 1880Wilhelm Pessler: German sociologist
  • 1881Hermann Sandby: Composer
  • 1882Gilbert M Anderson [Max Aronson]: Little Rock, Arkansas
  • 1883Jules van Nuffel: Composer
  • 1884George D Birkhoff: US mathematician (Aesthetic measure)
  • 1887Edwin Scharff: German "entartet" painter / sculptor

Died on March 21

  • 1538Hugo: Earl of Leisnig, Governor of Frisia, dies at about 79
  • 1556Thomas Cranmer: Archbishop of Canterbury, burned at stake at 66
  • 1652Vredius [Olivier de Wree]: Flem Historian / mayor (Brugge), dies at 55
  • 1654Johann Neukrantz: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1656Armagh James Ussher: Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), dies at 76
  • 1729John Law: Scottish financier, dies at about 57
  • 1734Gunther Jacob Wenceslaus: Composer, dies at 48
  • 1768Jan J Mauricius: Dutch Governor-General of Suriname (1742-51), dies at 75
  • 1793Johann Michael Schmidt: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1801Andrea Lucchesi: Composer, dies at 59
  • 1810Philippe-Joseph van den Berghe graaf Limmighe: Brabants ships
  • 1844Leopold F J J J van Sassen Ysselt: Dutch politician, dies at 65
  • 1857Abraham J van der Aa: Lexicographer (Biograph dictionary), dies at 64
  • 1863Edwin Vose Sumner: US Union General Major (Fair Oaks), dies at 66
  • 1894Jacob Rosenhaim: Composer, dies at 80
  • 1916Victor de Stuers: Dutch art expert, dies at 72
  • 1920Federigo Tozzi: Ital writer / journalist (Torre, Tre Croci), dies at 37
  • 1921"Big Jim" Colisimo: US gangster, murdered by Al Capone
  • 1934Franz Schreker: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1934Lilyan Tashman: Actor (Bulldog Drummond), dies at 34
  • 1936Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov: Composer (Chopiniana), dies at 70
  • 1938Oscar Apfel: Actor (Inspiration), dies at 60
  • 1939Evald Aav: Composer, dies at 39
  • 1941Robert Liefmann: German economist (Kartelle und Trusts), dies at 67
  • 1945J Woortman: Dutch resistance fighter, dies in Bergen-Belsen at 39
  • 1952Wilhelm Albrecht: German SD-chief, executed
  • 1954Harry Lawrence Freeman: Composer, dies at 84
  • 1955Muriel Aked: Dies at 67
  • 1958Cyril M Kornbluth: US sci-fi writer (Space Merchants), dies at 34
  • 1969Gerhart Fritsch: Writer, dies at 44