Events on Mar 21

  • 13493,000 Jews killed in Black Death riots in Efurt Germany
  • 1421Battle of Beauge-French beat British
  • 1492Alonzo Pietro, pilot, sailed with Columbus
  • 1610King James I addresses English House of Commons
  • 16813rd Exclusion Parliament meets in London
  • 1697Czar Peter the Great begins tour through West-Europe
  • 1702Queen Anne Stuart addresses English parliament
  • 1788Fire destroyed 856 buildings in New Orleans, Louisiana
  • 1788Gustavus Vassa petitions Queen Charlotte, to free enslaved Africans
  • 1790Thomas Jefferson reports to President Washington in New York as Secretary of State
  • 1791Captain Hopley Yeaton of NH becomes 1st commissioned officer in USN
  • 1804French civil Code of Napoleon adopted
  • 1824Fire at Cairo ammunitions dump kills 4,000 horses
  • 1835Charles Darwin and Mariano Gonzales meet at Portillo Pass
  • 1843Preacher William Miller of Mass predicts the world will end today
  • 1851Yosemite Valley discovered in California
  • 1857Earthquake hits Tokyo; about 107,000 die
  • 18591st Zoological Society incorporates (Philadelphia)
  • 1859Scottish National Gallery opens in Edinburgh
  • 1859Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 1st in US, incorporated
  • 1860US extradition treaty with Sweden
  • 1863Naval Engagement at Havana Cuba-USS Henrick Hudson vs. BR Wild Pigeon
  • 1865Battle of Bentonville ends, last Confederate effort to stop Sherman
  • 1871Journalist Henry M Stanley begins his famous expedition to Africa
  • 18852nd French government of Ferry resigns
  • 1890Austrian Jewish communities are defined by law
  • 1891A Hatfield marries a McCoy, ends long feud in West Virginia it started with an accusation of pig-stealing and lasted 20 years
  • 1899British and French accord about West-Africa
  • 1907US invades Honduras
  • 1914US Ladies Figure Skating championship won by Theresa Weld

Born on Mar 21

  • 1466French van Brederode: Leader Hoeksen
  • 1474Angela Merici: Italian monastery founder / Saint
  • 1521Mauritius: Duke / nice Monarch of Saksen (1547-53)
  • 1527Hermann Finck: Composer
  • 1609Jan II Kazimierz: Cardinal / King of Poland (1648-68)
  • 1624Francois Roberday: Composer
  • 1642Georg Schmezer: Composer
  • 1708Caspar Ruetz: Composer
  • 1713Francis Lewis: Signer (Declaration of Independence)
  • 1716Josef Ferdinand Norbert Seger: Composer
  • 1763Jean Paul: Writer
  • 1765Henry Fagel: Dutch / English Baron / diplomat
  • 1768Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier: Mathematician / Egyptologist
  • 1779Alexis Garaude: Composer
  • 1813James Jesse Strang: King of Mormons on Beaver Island, MI (1850-56)
  • 1816Charlotte Bronte: Novelist / poet
  • 1820Frank Mori: Composer
  • 1836Jesus Monasterio: Composer
  • 1863Hugo Kaun: Composer
  • 1866Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Maury: Astronomer
  • 1869Albert Kahn: Architect ( originated modern factory design)
  • 1869Florenz Ziegfeld: Producer (Ziegfield Follies)
  • 1878Thurlow Weed Lieurance: Composer
  • 1880Hans Hofmann: German / US painter (Search for the Real)
  • 1880Wilhelm Pessler: German sociologist
  • 1881Hermann Sandby: Composer
  • 1882Gilbert M Anderson [Max Aronson]: Little Rock, Arkansas
  • 1883Jules van Nuffel: Composer
  • 1884George D Birkhoff: US mathematician (Aesthetic measure)
  • 1887Edwin Scharff: German "entartet" painter / sculptor

Died on Mar 21

  • 1538Hugo: Earl of Leisnig, Governor of Frisia, dies at about 79
  • 1556Thomas Cranmer: Archbishop of Canterbury, burned at stake at 66
  • 1652Vredius [Olivier de Wree]: Flem Historian / mayor (Brugge), dies at 55
  • 1654Johann Neukrantz: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1656Armagh James Ussher: Archbishop (said world began 4004 BC), dies at 76
  • 1729John Law: Scottish financier, dies at about 57
  • 1734Gunther Jacob Wenceslaus: Composer, dies at 48
  • 1768Jan J Mauricius: Dutch Governor-General of Suriname (1742-51), dies at 75
  • 1793Johann Michael Schmidt: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1801Andrea Lucchesi: Composer, dies at 59
  • 1810Philippe-Joseph van den Berghe graaf Limmighe: Brabants ships
  • 1844Leopold F J J J van Sassen Ysselt: Dutch politician, dies at 65
  • 1857Abraham J van der Aa: Lexicographer (Biograph dictionary), dies at 64
  • 1863Edwin Vose Sumner: US Union General Major (Fair Oaks), dies at 66
  • 1894Jacob Rosenhaim: Composer, dies at 80
  • 1916Victor de Stuers: Dutch art expert, dies at 72
  • 1920Federigo Tozzi: Ital writer / journalist (Torre, Tre Croci), dies at 37
  • 1921"Big Jim" Colisimo: US gangster, murdered by Al Capone
  • 1934Franz Schreker: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1934Lilyan Tashman: Actor (Bulldog Drummond), dies at 34
  • 1936Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov: Composer (Chopiniana), dies at 70
  • 1938Oscar Apfel: Actor (Inspiration), dies at 60
  • 1939Evald Aav: Composer, dies at 39
  • 1941Robert Liefmann: German economist (Kartelle und Trusts), dies at 67
  • 1945J Woortman: Dutch resistance fighter, dies in Bergen-Belsen at 39
  • 1952Wilhelm Albrecht: German SD-chief, executed
  • 1954Harry Lawrence Freeman: Composer, dies at 84
  • 1955Muriel Aked: Dies at 67
  • 1958Cyril M Kornbluth: US sci-fi writer (Space Merchants), dies at 34
  • 1969Gerhart Fritsch: Writer, dies at 44

Historical events on March 22

  • 0752Stephen II elected Catholic Pope (or 23rd)
  • 1349Townspeople of Fulda Germany massacre Jews (blamed for black death)
  • 1457Gutenberg Bible became the 1st printed book
  • 1556Cardinal Reginald Pole becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1594French King Henri IV festival in Paris
  • 1621Hugo de Grote escapes in bookcase from Loevenstein castle, Neth
  • 16221st Indian (Powhattan) massacre of whites Jamestown Va; 347 slain
  • 16301st colonial legislation prohibiting gambling enacted (Boston)
  • 1638Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson expelled from Mass Bay Colony
  • 1680Parliament of Breisach accept French sovereignty over Elzas
  • 1692Emperor Leopold I names Duke Earnest August of Braunschweig, King
  • 1733Joseph Priestly invents carbonated water (seltzer)
  • 1765Stamp Act passed; 1st direct British tax on colonists
  • 1775Edmund Burke presents his 13 articles to the English parliament
  • 1778Captain Cook sights Cape Flattery, in Washington state
  • 1790Thomas Jefferson becomes the 1st US Secretary of State
  • 1794Congress bans US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries
  • 1822Gioacchino Rossini marries Isabella Colbran in Bologna
  • 1822New York Horticultural Society founded
  • 1841Cornstarch patented (Orlando Jones)
  • 18611st US nursing school chartered
  • 1862San Marino and Italy conclude treaty of friendship and cooperation
  • 1871William Holden of NC becomes 1st Governor removed by impeachment
  • 1872Illinois becomes 1st state to require sexual equality in employment
  • 1882Congress outlaws polygamy (again); bad news for Mormons
  • 1882Edmunds Act adopted by US to suppress polygamy in the territories
  • 1888English Football League established
  • 1894Stanley Cup: Mont AAA beat Ottawa Generals, 3-1 (1st Cup game ever)
  • 1895Auguste and Louis Lumiere show their 1st movie to an invited audience
  • 1896Charilaos Vasilakos wins 1st marathon (3:18)

Born on March 22

  • 1459Maximilian I of Habsburg: German Emperor / Archduke of Austria
  • 1609John II Casimir Vasa: Cardinal / King of Poland (1648-68)
  • 1700Giuseppe Sellitto: Composer
  • 1728Anton Raphael Mengs: German writer / neo-classic painter
  • 1728Giacomo Insanguine: Composer
  • 1752Johann Georg Joseph Spangler: Composer
  • 1767Cornelis T Elout: Dutch Minister of Finance
  • 1771Heinrich D Zschokke: Switzerland -- Author (Das Goldmacherdorf)
  • 1797Kaiser Wilhelm I: German Emperor (1871-88)
  • 1799F W A Argelander: Memel, East Prussia -- Cataloguer of 324,188 stars
  • 1803Anthonie Waldrop: Dutch painter / lithographer
  • 1813Gabriel Rene Paul: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1886
  • 1814Thomas Crawford: US sculptor (Babes in the Wood)
  • 1817Braxton Bragg: Gen (Confederate Army), died in 1876
  • 1819William Wirt Adams: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1888
  • 1822Ahmed Djevdet Pasha: Turkish Minister of Education / Justice
  • 1822Isaac D Fransen van de Putte: Dutch Premier (1866)
  • 1822Seth Williams: Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1866
  • 1824William Henry Chase Whiting: Major General (Confederate Army)
  • 1834Francis Asbury Shoup: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1896
  • 1842Carl A N Rosa: German violinist / composer
  • 1846Randolph Caldecott: England, United Kingdom -- Illustrator (Caldecott Medal namesake)
  • 1852Theodor Birt [Beatus Rhenanus]: German classical / writer
  • 1857Arnold Sauwen: Flemish poet (Along the Meuse)
  • 1857Paul Doumer: Governor-General of Indo-China / 13th President of France (1931-32)
  • 1865Theophile Ysaye: Composer
  • 1868Hamish MacCunn: Composer
  • 1868Henry W Methorst: Lawyer / director (Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics)
  • 1868Robert A Millikan: US physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923)
  • 1874Ellen Glasgow: Novelist

Died on March 22

  • 0337Constantine: Emperor of Rome, dies at 47
  • 1471George van Podiebrad: King of Bohemia (1458-71)
  • 1589Lodovico Guicciardini: Ital historian, dies at 67
  • 1639Thomas Carew: English Poet / diplomat (The Rapture)
  • 1661Hendrick Uylenburgh: Art dealer, buried at about 73
  • 1777John Bartram: Father of American botany, dies at 77
  • 1796Gaspare Gabellone: Composer, dies at 68
  • 1798Justin Morgan: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1820Stephen Decatur: Killed in a duel with Com James Barron at 41
  • 1824Johann Melchior Dreyer: Composer, dies at 76
  • 1832J W Goethe: Writer, dies at 82
  • 1838Hendrik Fagel: Dutch / English baron, dies at 73
  • 1845Franz Joseph Volkert: Composer, dies at 67
  • 1867Ferdinando Giorgetti: Composer, dies at 70
  • 1906Martin Wegelius: Finnish musicologist / composer, dies at 59
  • 1909Gyula Erkel: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1922Louis A Ranvier: French anatomist / historian, dies at 86
  • 1924R G Nivelle: French General (Verdun), dies at 67
  • 1929Anton Beer-Walbrun: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1944Pucheu: French Internal Minister to Vichy, executed
  • 1945J Postuma: Dutch resistance fighter
  • 1946Clemens A von Galen: Bishop of Munster / anti fascist, dies at 68
  • 1953James Anderson II: (Jo-Northern Exposure)
  • 1956George A L Sarton: Belgian / US historian, dies at 71
  • 1958Michael Todd: Producer (Around the World in 80 Days), dies at 56
  • 1962Aura Abranches: Port actress (Lisboa, O Primo Basilio), dies at 65
  • 1964Addison Richards: Actor (Col-Pentagon), dies at 76
  • 1969Ernst Deutsch [Dorian]: Czech actor (3rd Man, Golem), dies at 78
  • 1971Martin Bodmer: Writer
  • 1974Peter Revson: US race car driver (Indianapolis 500), dies at 35