Events on Mar 31

  • 1084Anti-pope Clemens crowns German Emperor Hendrik IV
  • 1492Queen Isabella of Castilia and Ferdinand of Aragon expels Jews
  • 1504France and Spain signs ceasefire
  • 1521Magelhaes takes possession of Homohon, Archipelago of St. Lazarus
  • 1547Henry II succeeds Francois I as King of France
  • 1644Pope Urbanus VIII and Duke of Parma signs Peace of Ferrara
  • 1651Great earthquake at Cuzco Peru
  • 1657English Humble Petition offers Lord Protector Cromwell the crown
  • 1667France / England signs anti-Dutch military accord
  • 1683Emperor Leopold I / Poland signs covenant against Turkey
  • 1745Jews are expelled from Prague
  • 1796Johann Wolfgang von Goethes "Egmont, " premieres in Weimar
  • 1808French created Kingdom of Westphalia orders Jews to adopt family names
  • 1814Forces allied against Napoleon capture Paris
  • 1831Mainzer Rijnvaart Convention ends
  • 1849Colonel John W Geary arrives as 1st postmaster of San Francisco
  • 1850US population hits 23,191,876 (Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7%))
  • 1854Treaty of Kanagawa: Commodore Perry forces Japan to opens ports to US
  • 1861Confederacy takes over mint at New Orleans
  • 1862Civil War action at Island #10 on Mississippi River
  • 1863Battle of Grand Gulf MS and Dinwiddie Court House, Virginia
  • 1865Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • 1865Gen Pickette moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Peterburg
  • 1868Chinese Embassy arrives aboard steamship China
  • 18701st black to vote in US (Thomas P Mundy of Perth Amboy NJ)
  • 1877British high director / Governor sir Bartle Frere arrives in Cape Town
  • 1878Jack Johnson is 1st black to hold a heavyweight boxing title
  • 18801st town completely illuminated by electric lighting (Wabash, IN)
  • 1883Utrecht begins water pipe system
  • 1885Great Britain declares Bechuanaland a protectorate

Born on Mar 31

  • 1519Henry II: King of Germany (1547-59)
  • 1570Louise Juliana: Countess of Nassau
  • 1621Andrew Marvell: England, United Kingdom -- Poet (To His Coy Mistress)
  • 1675Benedict XIV [Prospero L Lambertini]: Italy -- Pope (1740-58)
  • 1684Francesco Durante: Composer
  • 1717Florian Wrastill: Composer
  • 1723Frederik V: King of Denmark / Norway (1746-66)
  • 1747Johann A P Schulz: German composer
  • 1747Johann Abraham Peter Schulz: German composer (Moon has Risen)
  • 1791Franciszek Wincenty Mirecki: Composer
  • 1809Edward FitzGerald: England, United Kingdom -- Writer (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam)
  • 1809Nikolai Gogol: Father of 19th-century Russian realism (Dead Souls)
  • 1809Otto Jonas Lindblad: Composer
  • 1811Robert Wilhelm Eberhard von Bunsen: Germany -- Chemist (Bunsen Burner)
  • 1822Rafael Hernando: Composer
  • 1831Archibald Scott: Scottish chemist
  • 1835John La Farge: US painter
  • 1837Robert Ross McBurney: 1st paid Secretary of the YMCA
  • 1839Nikolay Przhevalsky: Naturalist, explorer of east central Asia (OS)
  • 1840John Herbert Kelly: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1864
  • 1847Jarolslaw Zielinski: Composer
  • 1848John Henry Roberts: Composer
  • 1854Dugald Clerk: Inventor (2-stroke motorcycle engine)
  • 1868Karl Bonhoeffer: German psychiatrist / neurologist
  • 1872Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev: Russia -- Dance master (Imperial Ballet)
  • 1878Jack Johnson: 1st black heavyweight boxing champ (1908-1915)
  • 1885Jules Pascin [Julius Pincas]: Bulgarian / US painter / cartoonist
  • 1887Jose Maria Usandizaga: Composer
  • 1891Erich Walter Sternberg: Composer
  • 1891Ion Pillat: Romaniams poet / senator (Umbra timpului)

Died on Mar 31

  • 1340Ivan I Kalita: Grand-duke of Vladimir
  • 1389Everhard Tserclaes: Sheriff of Brussels, murdered
  • 1567Philip [the Generous]: Count of Hessen, dies at 62
  • 1578Juan de Escobedo: Secretary of Spanish land guardian Don Juan, murdered
  • 1621Felipe III: King of Spain (1598-1621), dies at 42
  • 1631John Donne: Metaphysical poet
  • 1722Campegius Vitringa: Dutch Theologist / exegete, dies at 62
  • 1741Peter Burmannus [Peter Burman]: Dutch attorney / classicist, dies at 72
  • 1809Franz Joseph Haydn: Composer, dies on 77th birthday
  • 1837John Constable: English Painter / water colors painter, dies at 60
  • 1850John Calhoun: Dies at 68
  • 1877Antoine A Cournot: French Mathematician (rule of C), dies at 75
  • 1880Henryk Wieniawski: Polish violist / composer, dies at 44
  • 1881Gaetano Gaspari: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1884Jan T Beelen: Netherlands / Belgian Catholic bible expert, dies at 77
  • 1885Franz W Abbot: German Composer / choir conductor
  • 1885Franz Wilhelm Abt: German Composer / choir conductor, dies at 65
  • 1885Philipp Fahrbach: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1886Giovanni Rossi: Composer, dies at 57
  • 1892Adolf Rzepko: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1898Edward Noyes Westcott: US attorney / writer (David Harum)
  • 1901John Stainer: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1913John Pierpont Morgan: US banker / CEO (US Steel Corp), dies at 75
  • 1914Ch Morgenstern: Writer, dies at 42
  • 1928Gustave Ador: President of Austria (1919), dies at 82
  • 1928Medardo Rosso: Italian Sculptor (portraits), dies at 69
  • 1931Knute Rockne: Football player / coach, dies in a plane crash at 43
  • 1934Franz Ehrle: German Jesuit / head of Vatican library, dies at 88
  • 1938Willem J T Kloos: Dutch Poet / critic (New Guide), dies at 78
  • 1944Mineichi Koga: Admiral of Japanese fleet

Historical events on April 1

  • 0374Comet 1P / 374 E1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0884 AUs of Earth
  • 0527Justinianus becomes compassionate Emperor of Byzantium
  • 0705Greek Pope John VII chosen as successor to John VI
  • 1064Body of Bishop Eleutherius of Blandain moved to Doornik
  • 1504English guilds / corp goes under state control
  • 1572Bloys van Treslong conquers Brielle
  • 1578William Harvey of England discovers blood circulation
  • 1581Portugese Cortes subjects himself on Philip II
  • 1663Gemert fines unwed motherhood (50 guilder penalty)
  • 1724Henry Pelham becomes English Minister of War
  • 1748Ruins of Pompeii found
  • 1778Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, creates "$" symbol
  • 1789House of Reps 1st full meeting, NYC, F Muhlenberg 1st speaker
  • 1793Volcano Unsen on Japan erupts killing about 53,000
  • 1803French law rules the use of intention
  • 1826Samuel Mory patents internal combustion engine
  • 1836Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reaches Cocos Islands
  • 1850San Francisco County Government established
  • 1853Cincinnati became 1st US city to pay fire fighters a regular salary
  • 18631st wartime conscription law in US goes into effect
  • 1866US Congress rejects presidential veto gives all equal rights in US
  • 1867Blacks vote in municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama
  • 1867International Exhibition opens in Paris
  • 1867Singapore, Penang and Malakka become British crown colonies
  • 1868Hampton Institute opens
  • 18721st edition of The Standard
  • 1873British White Star steamship Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, 547 die
  • 1873Mehmed Kemals play "Vatan" premeres in Constantinople
  • 18761st official NL baseball game (Boston-6, Phila-5)
  • 1881Anti-Jewish riots in Jerusalem

Born on April 1

  • 1283Ludwig IV of Baveria: Roman Catholic Bavarian Emperor (1314-47)
  • 1578William Harvey: England, United Kingdom -- Physician (discovered blood circulation)
  • 1582Gaspar de Crayer: Flemish painter
  • 1582Thomas Simpson: Composer
  • 1643Christian Demelius: Composer
  • 1721Pieter Hellendaal: Dutch violinist / Organist / composer (Glees)
  • 1725Francois Bainville: Composer
  • 1755Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin: French lawyer (Fisiologia del Gusto)
  • 1772Ignaz Franz von Mosel: Composer
  • 1785J H Ferdinand Olivier: German painter
  • 1802Hubert Reis: Composer
  • 1807Fredrik Cygnaeus: Finnish poet / literature critic
  • 1809Willem Ruys J Dz: Dutch ship owner
  • 1815Otto Von Bismarck: Germany -- Chancellor (1866-90)
  • 1817Johannes J van Oosterzee: Dutch theologist
  • 1823Simon Bolivar Buckner: Lieutenant General (Confederate Army), died in 1914
  • 1834Isidore Edouard Legouix: Composer
  • 1843Ludwig Enneccerus: German jurist
  • 1847Gavriil Musicescu: Composer
  • 1847Jules-Nicolas Crevaux: French explorer (South America)
  • 1852Edward Austin Abbey: United States -- Painter (Quest of the Holy Grail)
  • 1858Arnold Aletrino: Dutch physician-criminologist / author (From Life)
  • 1858Gaetano Mosca: Italian sociologist (Circulation of Elite)
  • 1864Marie Jungius: Dutch fairy tale writer
  • 1865Richard Zsigmondy: Germany -- Chemist (Nobel-1925)
  • 1866Ferruccio D M B Busoni: Italy -- Pianist / composer / conductor (Arlecchino)
  • 1866Sophonisba Breckenridge: Scholar / teacher / social activist
  • 1868Edmond Rostand: France -- Poet / playwright (Cyrano de Bergerac)
  • 1869Peter A Egge: Norwegian writer (De Droom)
  • 1871F Melius Christiansen: Composer

Died on April 1

  • 1204Eleanor of Aquitaine: Wife of Louis VII and Henry II, dies at 81
  • 1205Amalrik II: King of Cyprus / Jerusalem
  • 1548Sigismund I [the Elder]: King of Poland, dies at 81
  • 1611Gillis van Valkenborch: Flemish painter, buried at about 72
  • 1734Louis Lully: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1799Narciso Casanovas: Composer, dies at 52
  • 1807Louis Francois Chambray: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1807Vaclav Josef Bartolomej Praupner: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1814Jozef de Ferraris: French / Austrian General / cartographer, dies at 87
  • 1830Carl Borromaus Neuner: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1832Robert the Hermit: US ex-slave / hermit in Massachusetts
  • 1866Aime Ambroise Simon Leborne: Composer, dies at 98
  • 1866Johannes C H de Meijere: Dutch zoologist
  • 1869Anthony G O Ridder van Rappard: Min of Reformed Worship, dies at 69
  • 1870Patrick Gass: Sgt of Lewis & Clark Expedition, dies at 98
  • 1878Eugene Gautier: Composer, dies at 56
  • 1901Francois M Raoult: French physicist / chemist (Law of Raoult), dies at 70
  • 1910Andreas Aschenbach: German Painter / engraver, dies at 94
  • 1914Rube Waddell: Baseballer, dies at 37 of tuberculosis
  • 1915Johann Joseph Abert: Composer, dies at 82
  • 1916Gabrielle Petit: Belgian resistance fighter, executed
  • 1917Scott Joplin: Ragtime Composer (Sting), dies at 48
  • 1918Karl Fritjof Valentin: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1922Charles I: Emperor (Austria) / King of Hungary (Charles IV)
  • 1925Francis William Davenport: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1930Cosima Liszt: Wife of Austrian Composer Richard Wagner, dies at 92
  • 1930Zawditu: 1st reigning female Monarch of Ethiopia
  • 1933Frederick Lord Chelmsford: Viceroy of Britain - Ind (1916-21), dies at 64
  • 1936Mikhail Vladimirovich Ivanov-Boretsky: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1941Hippolyte Delehaye: Flemish historian, dies at 81