Events on Apr 12

  • 1111Pope Paschalis II crowns Henry V, Roman Emperor
  • 12044th Crusade occupies and plunders Constantinople
  • 1385John without Fear marries Margaretha of Brabant
  • 1385Willem van Oostervant weds Philip the Stouts daughter Margaretha (10)
  • 1545French King Francois I orders protestants of Vaudois to be killed
  • 1583William of Orange marries Louise de Coligny
  • 1606England adopts Union Jack as its flag
  • 1648University of Harderwijk Netherlands solemn opens
  • 1654England, Ireland and Scotland united
  • 17091st edition of Tattler magazine in England
  • 1713Dutch State-General signs peace with France: Netherlands loses Orange Princedom
  • 1770Townsend Acts repealed
  • 1776Halifax resolution for independence adopted by North Carolina
  • 1782Battle at Les Saintes West-Indies: British fleet beats French
  • 18111st US colonists on Pacific coast arrive at Cape Disappointment, Washington
  • 1844Texas became a US territory
  • 18581st US billiards championship (Michael J Phelan wins in Detroit)
  • 1859Hibernia Savings & Loan Society of SF incorporates
  • 1861Fort Sumter, SC is shelled by Confederacy, starting Civil War
  • 1862James Andrews steals Confederate train (General) at Kennesaw, Georgia
  • 1862Union troops occupy Fort Pulaski, Georgia
  • 1864Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest captures Fort Pillow, Tennessee
  • 1869North Carolina legislature passes anti-Klan Law
  • 1872Jesse James gang robs bank in Columbia, Kentucky (1 dead / $1,500)
  • 1877British annex Transvaal, in South Africa
  • 1883French troops under Lieutenant Colonel Borgnis-Desbordes occupy Bamako Senegal
  • 1892George C Blickensderfer patents portable typewriter
  • 1893Battle at Hoornkrans Southwest-Africa: German Schutztruppen chases away Hottentotten under Hendrik Witbooi
  • 1894British and Belgian secret accord on dividing Central-Africa
  • 1896Stamasia Portrisi is 1st woman to win a marathon (5:30 in Athens)

Born on Apr 12

  • 1500Joachim Camerarius [Liebhard Kammerer]: German humanist
  • 1579Francois de Bassompierre: Marshal of France
  • 1626Paul Hainlein: Composer
  • 1695Caspar Burman: Historian / Mayor (Utrecht, Netherlands)
  • 1722Pietro Nardini: Composer
  • 1724Lyman Hall: US Physician (signed Declaration of Independence)
  • 1727Gaspare Gabellone: Composer
  • 1760Juan Manuel Olivares: Composer
  • 1764Dirk van den Boetzelaer: Regent of Holland
  • 1769Giovanni Agostino Perotti: Composer
  • 1777Henry Clay [the Great Compromiser]: US politician
  • 1788Johann Erik Nordblom: Composer
  • 1791Francis Preston Blair: Newspaper editor (Washington Globe)
  • 1792John George Lambton: London, England -- Statesman (1st Earl of Durham)
  • 1793Ferdinand I KLJM [the Good Natured]: Emperor of Austria / King of Hungary
  • 1794Germinal P Dandelin: Belgian mathematician (geometry)
  • 1801Henry de Cock: Dutch reformed vicar / secession leader
  • 1801Josef Franz Karl Lanner: Austria -- Composer / violist
  • 1802Francois MP Liberman: French relig leader (Congregation of Heart)
  • 1815Henry Hugo Pierson: Composer
  • 1823Aleksandr Ostrovsky: Russian playwright (Artists & Admirers)
  • 1827Edward Mollenhauer: Composer
  • 1831Constantin Meunier: Belgian painter / sculptor
  • 1831George Burgwyn Anderson: Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • 1831Grenville Mellen Dodge: Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1838John Shaw Billings: United States -- Librarian / army Physician
  • 1839Victorin de Joncieres: Composer
  • 1840Edmond Audran: Composer
  • 1851Emil Liebling: Composer
  • 1852[Carl L] Ferdinand von Lindemann: German mathematician

Died on Apr 12

  • 0352Julius I: Pope (337-52)
  • 1550Claude of Lorraine: Duke of Guise, dies at 53
  • 1555Johanna de Wanzinnige: Queen of Castilie (1504-20), dies at 75
  • 1690Miguel Gomez Camargo: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1704John Hudde: 21x Mayor of Amsterdam, dies at 76
  • 1748William Kent: English Sculptor / Architect (Kensington Palace)
  • 1760Baron Ernst Gottlieb: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1788Carl Joseph Toeschi: Composer, dies at 56
  • 1788Carlo Antonio Campioni: Composer, dies at 67
  • 1795Rainieri de Calzabigi: Italian literary, dies at 80
  • 1797Josef Antonin Stepan: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1817Charles Messier: "comet ferret" and catalogs famous "M objects"
  • 1828Jean Henri Appelius: Dutch lawyer / Minister of Finance, dies at 60
  • 1845Henry M baron the Kock: Officer / politician, dies at 65
  • 1859John Emde: German evangelist, dies at about 84
  • 1864Thomas Green: US Confederate Brigadier General, dies in battle at 50
  • 1878William M "Boss" Tweed: New York politician
  • 1896Alexander Ritter: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1909Hermann Kotzchmar: Composer, dies at 79
  • 1910William G Sumner: US sociologist / politicologist (Folkways), dies at 69
  • 1912Clara Barton: Organizer (American Red Cross), dies at 90
  • 1914Josef Nesvera: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1922Frantisek Ondricek: Composer, dies at 64
  • 1938Feodor Chaliapine: Russian Author (Man & Mark), dies at 65
  • 1942Johannes E Akkeringa: Dutch Painter / etcher, dies at 80
  • 1945Franklin Delano Roosevelt: 32nd President (D) (1933-1945), dies at 63
  • 1946August Borms: Flemish Nazi collaborator, executed at 67
  • 1946F Guicciardi: Writer
  • 1947Christian F L Leipoldt: South African writer (Die Moormansgat)
  • 1951Harold Vincent Milligan: Composer, dies at 62

Historical events on April 13

  • 0989Battle at Abydos: Byzantine Emperor Basilius II beats Bardas Phocas
  • 1111Pope Paschalis II crowns Roman catholics-German King Hendrik II
  • 1180Republic day of Gelnhausen
  • 1204Crusaders occupy Constantinople
  • 1346Pope Clemens VI declares German Emperor Louis of Bavaria, envoy
  • 1517Osmaanse army occupies Cairo
  • 1556Portuguese Marranos who revert back to Judaism burned by order of Pope
  • 1598Edict of Nantes grants political rights to French Huguenots
  • 1640English Short Parliament forms (- May 5)
  • 1668John Dryden (36) becomes 1st English Poet laureate
  • 1741Dutch people protest bad quality of bread
  • 1741Royal Military Academy forms at Woolwich
  • 1759French beat European Allies in Battle of Bergen
  • 17961st elephant arrives in US from India
  • 1796Battle at Millesimo Italy: Napoleon beats Austrians
  • 1808William Henry Lane ("Juda") perfects tap dance
  • 1829English Emancipation Act grants freedom of religion to Catholics
  • 1834HMS Beagle anchors at river mouth of Rio Santa Cruz, Patagonia
  • 1842Lord Rosse successfully casts 72" (183-cm) mirror for a telescope
  • 1849Hungarian Republic proclaimed
  • 18601st Pony Express reaches Sacramento, California
  • 1861After 34 hours of bombardment, Ft Sumter surrenders to Confederates
  • 1863Battle of Irish Bend, LA (Ft Bisland)
  • 1863Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled in New York is 1st orthopedic hospital
  • 1865Battle of Raleigh, North Carolina
  • 1869Steam power brake patented (George Westinghouse)
  • 1870Metropolitan Museum of Art forms in New York City
  • 1873Colfax Massacre in Grant Parish Louisiana (60 blacks killed)
  • 1882Anti-Semitic League forms in Prussia
  • 1883Alfred Packer convicted of cannibalism

Born on April 13

  • 1519De Medicis: Queen consort (Henry II of France)
  • 1545Elisabeth van Valois: French Queen of Spain / Daughter of Henri II
  • 1593Thomas Wentworth: London, England -- Earl of Strafford / Viceroy of Ireland
  • 1626Aert Jansz van Nes: Lieutenant Admiral
  • 1713Pierre de Jelyotte: Composer
  • 1721John Hanson: Maryland, United States -- 1st US President under Articles of Confederation
  • 1729Thomas Percy: English literary / Bishop of Dromore
  • 1732Frederick North: (C) British Prime Minister (1770-82)
  • 1733Johann Heinrich Zang: Composer
  • 1749Frederik Sigismund van Bylandt: Dutch count / Vice-Admiral
  • 1762Johanna C Wattier-Ziesenis: Dutch actress (Phaedra, Lady Macbeth)
  • 1762Karl Friedrich Horn: Composer
  • 1771Adam FJA van der Duyn: Dutch Governor (South Holland)
  • 1771Richard Trevithick: Cornwall -- Inventor (steam locomotive)
  • 1784Cornelis Smit: Dutch ship builder
  • 1799Heinrich F L Rellstab: German music theorist
  • 1799Joseph Rastrelli: Composer
  • 1816William Sterndale Bennett: Composer
  • 1817Alphonse Wauters: Belgian historian / archivist (Brussels)
  • 1822Leroy Augustus Stafford: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1864
  • 1822William Stephen Walker: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1899
  • 1828Joseph B Lightfoot: English theologist / Bishop of Durham
  • 1830Eduard Lassen: Composer
  • 1832James Wimshurst: British designer / inventor (electricstatic generator)
  • 1847Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk: Governor-General (Netherlands East Indies)
  • 1849Enrique Jose Varona: Cuban sociologist / psychologist
  • 1854Richard T Ely: US economist (Hard Times)
  • 1860James Ensor: Flemish painter / etcher (De lampenjongen)
  • 1865Heinrich Reinhardt: Composer
  • 1868John Blackwood McEwen: Composer

Died on April 13

  • 0799Paulus Diaconus Warnafridi: Longobardisch writer
  • 1517Tuman Bey: Last Mamelukken Sultan of Egypt, hanged
  • 1722Charles Leslie: Irish controversialist
  • 1728Johann Christoph Schmidt: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1742Giovanni Veneziano: Composer, dies at 59
  • 1756Johann T Gottlieb Goldberg: German klavecinist / composer, dies at 29
  • 1806Jean-Jacques Bachelier: French painter, dies at about 82
  • 1822Gaetano Valeri: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1825Josef Gelinek: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1826Franz Danzi: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1831Ferdinand Kauer: Composer, dies at 80
  • 1868Theodorus [Kasa]: Emperor of Abyssinia, commits suicide
  • 1873Carlo Coccia: Composer, dies at 90
  • 1886Karoly Thern: Composer, dies at 68
  • 1903Derk J A Haspels: Dutch actor, dies at 65
  • 1904Vasili Vereshtshagin: Russian Painter (War & Peace)
  • 1910William Orchardson: British painter
  • 1928Luis Iruarrizaga Aguirre: Composer, dies at 36
  • 1936Demertzis: Greek Premier
  • 1941Annie Jump Cannon: US astronomer (Henry Draper catalogues), dies at 77
  • 1942Henk Sneevliet: Leader of Dutch RSAP / Spartacus, executed at 58
  • 1944Paul Hazard: French literature historian, dies at 65
  • 1946William Henry Bell: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1949C V France: Dies at 80
  • 1952[Rosalie] Julia Cuypers: Flemish actress (Adelaarsjong), dies at 79
  • 1959Eduard A van Beinum: Dutch musician / conductor, dies at 57
  • 1959Rigardus "Rijn" Rijnhout: Giant of Rotterdam (2.375m), dies at 38
  • 1967Luis Somoza Debayle: President of Nicaragua (1956-63), dies at 44
  • 1973Alexandre A M Stols: Publisher / typographer (Schoone Book), dies at 73
  • 1974Stanley Smith: Actor (Honey, King of Jazz, Soup to Nuts), dies at 71