Events on Apr 19

  • 0607Comet 1P / 607 H1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0898 AUs of Earth
  • 1451Alam Shah of Delhi resigns throne
  • 1524Pope Clemens VII fires Netherlands Inquisitor-General French Van de Holly
  • 15292nd Parliament of Spiers bans Lutheranism
  • 1539Charles, protestant German monarch, signs Treaty of Frankrfurt
  • 1552Mauritius of Saksen captures Karel
  • 1587Sir Frances Drake sails into Cadiz Spain and sinks Spanish fleet
  • 1591Chartres surrenders to King Henri IV in France
  • 1619Theatrum Anatomicum opens in Amsterdam
  • 1713Emperor Karel VI ends Pragmatic Sanctions
  • 1770Amsterdam buys Van Aerssens family 1 / 3 part of Suriname
  • 1770Captain James Cook 1st sees Australia
  • 1774CW Glucks opera "Iphigenia in Aulis, " premieres in Paris
  • 1775Minutemen Captain John Parker orders not to fire unless fired upon
  • 1775Revolution begins-Lexington Common, shot "heard round the world"
  • 1782Netherlands recognizes US
  • 182533 patriotic exiles return to Uruguay
  • 1837Cheyney University forms as the Institute for Colored Youth
  • 1839Treaty of London constitutes Belgium an independent kingdom and Luxembourg a Grand Duchy
  • 1852California Historical Society forms
  • 1853Netherlands Van Hall government forms
  • 1861Baltimore riots-4 soldiers, 9 civilians killed
  • 1861Lincoln orders blockade of Confederate ports (Civil War)
  • 1863Union troops / fleet occupy For Huger, Virginia
  • 1864Naval Engagement at Cherbourg, FR: USS Kearsage vs. CSS Alabama
  • 1874Barracks on Alcatraz Island destroyed in fire
  • 1877Opera "Les Cloches de Cornerville" is produced (Paris)
  • 1890Henry Morton Stanley inaugurated in Brussels
  • 1892Charles Duryea takes 1st American-made auto out for a spin (Mass)
  • 18971st American marathon ran, John J McDermott wins in 2:55:10 (Boston)

Born on Apr 19

  • 1320Pedro I: King of Portugal (1357-67)
  • 1605Orazio Benevoli: Composer
  • 1660Sebastian Duron: Composer
  • 1700Georg Abraham Schneider: Composer
  • 1715James Nares: Composer
  • 1721Roger Sherman: Signer (Declaration of Independence, Constitution)
  • 1728Francisco Albergati Capacelli: Italian playwright
  • 1737Geert Reinders: Dutch cattle breeder / inoculation propagandist
  • 1768Adrian H Haworth: English entomologist / Botanist
  • 1771Giuseppe Cartufo: Composer
  • 1772David Ricardo: Economist
  • 1785Alexandre Pierre Francois Boely: Composer
  • 1795Christian Gottfried Ehrenburg: German zoologist
  • 1798Franz Joseph Glaser: Composer
  • 1798Heinrich Maria von Hess: Historical painter
  • 1801Gustav T Fechner [Dr Mises]: German philosopher / physicist
  • 1817John Philip: Painter
  • 1821Mortimer Dormer Leggett: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1896
  • 1830Rudolf Cornely: German bible expert / Jesuit
  • 1832Jose Echegaray y Eizaguirre: Mathematician / dramatist (Nobel 1904)
  • 1832Lucretia Rudolph Garfield: 1st lady (1881)
  • 1840Andrea Bezzola: Writer
  • 1850Edward John Gregory: Painter / engraver
  • 1850Theo Mann-Bouwmeester: Dutch actress (Pink Bernd, Hedda Gabler)
  • 1857Lucien Levy-Bruhl: Philosopher
  • 1858May Robson [Mary J Robison]: Melbourne, Victoria -- Actress (Apple Annie)
  • 1858Siegfried Ochs: Composer
  • 1861Warden Oncle [Edward Vermeulen]: Flemish farmer / writer
  • 1866Henri WA Deterding: Dutch oil magnate (Royal Oil, Shell)
  • 1868Max Von Schillings: German composer / conductor (Der Pfeifertag)

Died on Apr 19

  • 0843Judith: French empress / 2nd Wife of Louis de Vrome
  • 1044Gothelo: Duke of Neth-Lotharingen
  • 1054Leo IX [Bruno von Egesheim und Dagsburg]: Pope (1049-54), dies at 51
  • 1390Robert II: King of Scotland
  • 1529John Cuspinianus [Spiessheimer]: German physician, dies at about 55
  • 1560Philipp Melanchton (Schwazerd): Church reformer, dies at 63
  • 1567Michael Stifel: German Theologist / mathematician, dies at about 79
  • 1588Paolo Veronese (Cagliari): Painter
  • 1608Earl of Dorset: Poet / statesman
  • 1645Anton van Diemen: Governor-General (Netherlands East Indies), dies at about 51
  • 1689Christina: Queen of Sweden (1644-54)
  • 1706Galenus Abrahamsz de Haen: Dutch baptist leader
  • 1739Nicholas Saunderson: Mathematician
  • 1768Filippo della Valle: Italian sculptor, dies at about 70
  • 1770Esprit Joseph Antoine Blanchard: Composer, dies at 74
  • 1772Johann Peter Kellner: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1773Florian Johann Deller: Composer, dies at 43
  • 1776Jacob Israel Emden [Jacob ben Tswi]: German rabbi, dies at 78
  • 1799Pieter Hellendaal: Violinist / Organist / Composer (Glees), dies at 78
  • 1813Benjamin Rush: Physician / abolotionist (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 67
  • 1824George Gorden Noel "Lord" Byron: Poet, dies at 36
  • 1852Vasili A Zjukovski: Russian folk Poet / translator (Homerus), dies at 69
  • 1862Louis Powell Harvey: US Governor of Wisconsin, drowns
  • 1862Simon Fraser: Canadian explorer
  • 1870Andreas Schelfhout: Painter / etcher / lithographer, dies at 83
  • 1870Camille Marie Stamaty: Composer, dies at 59
  • 1870William Henry Havergal: Composer, dies at 77
  • 1874Owen Jones: Architect
  • 1876Samuel Sebastian Wesley: Composer, dies at 65
  • 1881Benjamin Disraeli: 1st Earl (Beaconsfield) / Novelist

Historical events on April 20

  • 0850Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne
  • 11392nd Lateran Council (10th ecumenical council) opens in Rome
  • 1505Jews are expelled from Orange Burgandy by Philibert of Luxembourg
  • 1551John Dudley becomes English Earl Marshal
  • 1650VOC-management sets new guidelines
  • 1653Cromwell routes English parliament to house
  • 1657Battle in Santa Cruz Bay, Tenerife: English fleet under Robert Blake sinks Spanish silver fleet
  • 1702Comet C / 1702 H1 approaches within 0.0437 AUs of Earth
  • 1770Captain Cook arrives in New South Wales
  • 1775British begin siege of Boston
  • 1777New York adopts new constitution as an independent state
  • 1792France declares war on Austria, Prussia and Sardinia
  • 1799Napoleon issues a decree calling for establishing Jerusalem for Jews
  • 1809Napoleon I defeats Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria
  • 1836Territory of Wisconsin created
  • 1853Harriet Tubman starts Underground Railroad
  • 1861Battle of Norfolk, Virginia
  • 1861Colonel Robert E Lee resigns from Union army
  • 18713rd Enforcement Act (President can suspend writ of habeas corpus)
  • 1872San Francisco Bar Association organized
  • 18791st mobile home (horse drawn) used in a journey from London and Cyprus
  • 1884Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Freemasonry"
  • 1888246 reported killed by hail in Moradabad, India
  • 1894136,000 mine workers strike in Ohio for pay increase
  • 1898US Assay Office in Deadwood, South Dakota opens
  • 1902Marie and Pierre Curie isolate radioactive element radium
  • 19037th Boston Marathon won by John Lorden of Mass in 2:41:29.8
  • 1903New York Highlanders play their 1st game, with Jack Chesbro losing 3-1 to Al Orth and Washington
  • 1904Louisiana Purchase Exposition opens in St. Louis
  • 190812th Boston Marathon won by Tom Morrissey of New York in 2:25:43.2

Born on April 20

  • 1494John Agricola [Schneider]: German theologist / Prime Minister
  • 1592John Eliot: St. Germans, Cornwall -- English MP / author
  • 1594Matthaus Apelles von Lowenstern: Composer
  • 1705Balthasar Schmid: Composer
  • 1725Johann Friedrich Kloffler: Composer
  • 1726Jozef de Ferraris: French / Austrian Earl / General / cartographer
  • 1745Philippe Pinel: Physician (founder of psychiatry)
  • 1748Georg Michael Telemann: Composer
  • 1748Guillaume Albert Teniers: Composer
  • 1761Johann Gottlieb Karl Spazier: Composer
  • 1808Louis-Napoleon [Napoleon III]: Emperor of France (1852-71)
  • 1809John Smith Preston: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1881
  • 1824Alfred Holt Colquitt: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1894
  • 1826Dina M Craik: Writer
  • 1827John Gibbon: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1896
  • 1839Carol I: King of Romania (1881-1914)
  • 1850Daniel Chester: French / American sculptor (Minute Man)
  • 1857Charles LP "Philip" Zilcken: Painter / author (HW Knife Day)
  • 1857Hermann Bang: Writer
  • 1858Auguste Chapuis: Composer
  • 1860Charles Gordon Curtis: US attorney / inventor (Curtis Turbine)
  • 1860Pieter Jelles Troelstra: Dutch MP (SDAP)
  • 1866Victor Hollaender: Composer
  • 1870Simeon Roncal: Composer
  • 1871William Henry Davies: Wales, United Kingdom -- Poet (Autobiography of a Super Tramp)
  • 1876Gerard J Arbous: Actor / publicist (Prince William of Orange)
  • 1879Robert Lynd: Irish writer / critic (Pleasures of Ignorance)
  • 1881Nikolai Miaskovsky: Novogeorievsk, Poland -- Composer (Kirov is With Us)
  • 1881Sem Dresden: Composer / conductor
  • 1893Harold Lloyd: Burchard, Nebraska -- Silent comic (Why Worry, Safety Last)

Died on April 20

  • 1164Victor IV [Ottaviano Montecello]: Italian antipope (1159-64)
  • 1314Clement V [Bertrand Got]: Pope (1305-14) move papacy to Avignon
  • 1317Agnes van Montepulciano: Italian mystic / saint
  • 1534Elizabeth Barton [St Magd van Kent]: British prophet
  • 1632Nicolas Antione: Converted to Judiasm, burned at the stake
  • 1643Christoph Demantius: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1662Gerard Terborch [the Elder]: Painter
  • 1695Georg Caspar Weckler: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1768Giovanni AC Canaletto: Italian Painter / cartoonist (Rialto), dies at 70
  • 1769Pontiac: Indian chief to Ottawa, murdered
  • 1786John Goodricke: English deaf and dumb astronomer, dies at 21
  • 1812George Clinton: 4th US VP, dies at 73, 1st VP to die in office
  • 1820Arthur Young: Author (Annals of Agriculture)
  • 1821Franz K Achard: German physicist / chemist, dies at 67
  • 1836Johan I Jozef: Monarch of Liechtenstein / Field Marshal, dies at 75
  • 1839Giuseppe Rossini: Father of Italian Composer Gioacchino Rossini
  • 1869Johann Carl Gottfried Loewe: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1869Piotr Studzinski: Composer, dies at 42
  • 1872Ljudwit Gaj: Croatian writer / Poet (Pjesma iz Zagorja), dies at 62
  • 1900Mebel Mercer: Popular British singer
  • 1906Australian wombat; oldest known marsupial: Dies in London Zoo at 26
  • 1908Henry Chadwick: Sports reporter (baseball), dies at 85
  • 1912Bram Stoker: Irish theater manager / writer (Dracula)
  • 1932Giuseppe Peano: Mathematician
  • 1935Juliaan de Vriendt: Flemish painter, dies at 92
  • 1941Barend ter Haar: Dutch lawyer, dies in Buchenwald at 49
  • 1947Christian X: King of Denmark (1912-47), dies at 76
  • 1953Erich Weinert: Writer, dies at 62
  • 1956Jaap Vranken: Organist / Composer (Stabat mater)
  • 1956Lieven Duvosel: Flemish music Composer (Levensschets), dies at 78