Events on Apr 21

  • 0953Otto I the Great gives Utrecht fishing rights
  • 1420Treaty of Saint Maartens Dike
  • 1453Turkish fleet sinks ships Golden Receiver in Constantinople
  • 1509Henry the VIII becomes King of England
  • 1521Battle at Villalar: Emperor Charles I beats Communards
  • 1526Battle at Panipat: Mogol Emperor Babur beats Sultan Ibrahim Lodi
  • 1572France and England sign anti-Spanish military covenant
  • 1649Maryland Toleration Act passed, allowing all freedom of worship
  • 1654England and Sweden sign trade agreement
  • 1689William III and Mary Stuart proclaimed King and Queen of England
  • 1739Spain and Naples-Austria sign peace accord
  • 1785Russian tsarina Catharina II ends noble privileges
  • 1789John Adams sworn in as 1st US VP (9 days before Washington)
  • 1794New York City formally declares coast of Ellis Island publically owned, so they can build forts to protect NYC from British
  • 1828Noah Webster publishes 1st American dictionary
  • 1857Alexander Douglas patents the bustle
  • 1862Congress establishes US Mint in Denver, Colorado
  • 1878New York installs 1st firehouse pole
  • 1878Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • 1878Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • 1884Potters Field reopened as Madison Park
  • 1892Black Longshoremen strike for higher wages in St. Louis, Missouri
  • 1898Spanish-American War begins
  • 1904Ty Cobb makes his pro debut for Augusta (South Atlantic League)
  • 1910Cleveland Naps play 1st game at League Park, lose to Detroit Tigers 5-0
  • 1913German passenger ship Imperator runs aground
  • 1913Gideon Sundback of Sweden patents the zipper
  • 1914US marines occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico, stay 6 months
  • 1925Chuvash Autonomous Region in RSFSR becomes Chuvash ASSR
  • 1930Fire at Ohio State Penitentiary kills 322

Born on Apr 21

  • 1488Ulrich von Hutten: German poet / humanist / patriot
  • 1546Arcangelo Crivelli: Composer
  • 1619John A van Riebeeck: Colonial director / founder (Cape Colony)
  • 1672Johann Philipp Kafer: Composer
  • 1713Louis Duke de Noailles: Marshal of France
  • 1729Catharina II [the Great]: Writer / emperess of Russia (1762-96)
  • 1730Antonin Kammel: Composer
  • 1749Johann Michael Malzat: Composer
  • 1774Jean-Baptiste Biot: French physicist / astronomer (balloonist)
  • 1775Alexander Anderson: United States -- Engraver / illustrator (Shakespeare)
  • 1779William Knyvett: Composer
  • 1795Vincenzo Pallotti: Italian Saint
  • 1803Levin Minn Powell: Commander (Union Navy), died in 1885
  • 1806Peter van Schendel: Dutch painter
  • 1809Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter: Secy State (Confederacy)
  • 1814Beni Egressy: Composer
  • 1816Louis Trezevant Wigfall: Confederate Army, died in 1874
  • 1824Anselmo Clave: Composer
  • 1828Hippolyte Taine: French philosopher / historian (Voyage in Italy)
  • 1834William Rufus Terrill: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1862
  • 1837Fredrik Bajer: Denmark -- Politican / feminist / pacifist (Nobel 1908)
  • 1840Franz Xaver Haberl: German priest / musicologist (Magister choralis)
  • 1849Oskar Hertwig: Germany -- Embryologist - discovered fertilization
  • 1853Charles-Theodore Malherbe: Composer
  • 1854Eusapia Palladino: Napolitanse with parergische phenomenons
  • 1854Wladyslaw Rzepko: Composer
  • 1864Max Weber: German sociologist / economist / historian (Ancient Judaism)
  • 1867Benjamin A Jesurun: Antillian literary
  • 1871Leo Blech: Composer
  • 1871Vojtech Rihovsky: Composer

Died on Apr 21

  • 1073Alexander II [Anselmo da Baggio]: Pope (1061-73)
  • 1109Anselmus: Philosopher / Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1509Henry VII: 1st Tudor King of England (1485-1509), dies at 52
  • 1552Peter Apianus [Bennewitz / Bienewitz]: German astronomer, dies at 50
  • 1652Pietro Della Valle: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1696Andres de Sola: Composer, dies at 61
  • 1730Jan Palfijn: Flemish Physician / inventor (forceps), dies at 79
  • 1736Frans Eugenius: Duke / prince of Savoye, dies at 72
  • 1871Elisabeth Grube: Writer
  • 1878Temistocle Solera: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1898Louis Theodore Gouvy: Composer, dies at 78
  • 1899Heinrich Kiepert: German cartographer / geographer, dies at 80
  • 1900Heinrich Vogl: Composer, dies at 55
  • 1910Mark Twain [Samuel Clemens]: Auther (Huckleberry Finn), dies at 74
  • 1918"Red Baron" [Manfred von Richtofen]: Shot down in WWI at 25
  • 1924Eleanora Duse: Ital actress (La Gioconda, La Locandiera), dies at 64
  • 1930Christine [Elizabeth C] Poolman: Dutch actress (Mother), dies at 79
  • 1930Robert S Bridges: Poet laureate (Testament of beauty), dies at 85
  • 1938Muhammad Iqbal: Brt E Indies lawyer / Pakistan national hero, dies at 65
  • 1939Herman Finck: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1946John M Keynes: English economist (How to pay for the war?), dies at 62
  • 1948Carlos Lopez Buchardo: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1952[Richard] Stafford Cripps: English Minister of Plane-manufacturing, dies at 62
  • 1952Leslie Banks: Actor (Henry V, 21 Days, Eye Witness), dies at 61
  • 1961James Melton: Opera tenor (Ford Festival), dies at 57
  • 1962Frederick Handley Page: Designer of 1st big airplane (40 seats)
  • 1965Edward V Appleton: English physicist (Nobel Prize 1947), dies at 72
  • 1968Norman Demuth: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1968Toby Halicki: Car-crash film producer 48, killed shooting stunt
  • 1971Edmund Lowe: Actor (Front Page Detective), dies at 81

Historical events on April 22

  • 0296St. Gaius ends his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 0536St. Agapitus I ends his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1056Supernova Crab nebula last seen by the naked eye
  • 1073Pope Alexander II buried / Ildebrando chosen as Pope Gregory VII
  • 1164Raynald of Dassel names Guido di Crema as anti-pope Paschalis III
  • 1370Bastille begins being built in Paris
  • 1500Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil and claims it for Portugal
  • 1509Henry VIII ascended to throne of England
  • 1521French King Francois I declares war on Spain
  • 15261st slave revolt occurs in South Carolina
  • 1529Treaty of Saragosa: Spain and Portugal divide eastern hemisphere
  • 1648English army claims King Charles I responsible for bloodshed
  • 1659Lord protector Cromwell disbands English parliament
  • 1662Royal Society incorporates
  • 1671King Charles II sits in on English parliament
  • 1676Battle of Etna - Netherlands / Spain vs. France, M de Ruyter fatally wounded
  • 1677Battle at Catania: between French and Dutch fleet
  • 1692Edward Bishop is jailed for proposong flogging as cure for witchcraft
  • 172219 VOC "komplotteurs" in Batavia executed
  • 1796Napoleon defeats Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi
  • 1804Gioacchino Rossini (12) performs in Imola
  • 1817Curacao prohibits use of white paint due to fierce sunlight
  • 1823Baltic Club (Exchange) forms in London
  • 1823R J Tyers patents roller skates
  • 1838English steamship "Sirius" docks in NYC after Atlantic crossing
  • 1861Robert E Lee named commander of Virginia Confederate forces
  • 1864US mints 2 cent coin (1st appearance of "In God We Trust")
  • 18761st NL game, Boston Braves beat Philadelphia Athletics 6-5
  • 1876Tsjaikovsky completes his "Swan Lake" ballet
  • 1884Thomas Stevens starts 1st bike trip around world (2 yrs 9 mos)

Born on April 22

  • 1357Johan I: King of Portugal (1383-1433)
  • 1451Isabella I [of Castile]: Spain -- Queen of Spain (1479-1504), Patron of Columbus
  • 1610Alexander VIII [Pietro Ottoboni]: Italy -- Lawyer / Pope (1689-91)
  • 1640Mariana Alcoforado: Portugal -- Nun
  • 1658Giuseppe Torelli: Italy -- Composer (Concert Grossi op 8)
  • 1682Willem I Kerricx the Young: Flemish architect / sculptor / painter
  • 1690John Carteret: Earl Granville (C), English Chief Minister (1722-42)
  • 1707Henry Fielding: England, United Kingdom -- Novelist (Joseph Andrews, Tom Jones)
  • 1724Immanuel Kant: Konigsberg, Germany -- Philosopher (Critique of Pure Reason)
  • 1773Jean V Baron de Rebecque: Swiss / Dutch army leader
  • 1775Georg Hermes: German philosopher / theologist (Hermenianen)
  • 1781Christian Friedrich Hermann Uber: Composer
  • 1799Jean Poiseuille: Physician / physiologist (blood pressure)
  • 1816Philip James Bailey: English poet (Festus)
  • 1818Cadwallader Colden Washburn: Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1823Alfred Gibbs: Major General (Union Army), died in 1868
  • 1827William Hopkins Morris: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1900
  • 1828Guilherme Antonio Cossoul: Composer
  • 1831Alexander McDowell McCook: Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1832Julius Sterling Morton: Nebraska, United States -- Governor of Nebraska that started Arbor Day
  • 1839August W Eichler: German Botanist
  • 1853Alphonse Bertillon: France -- Anthropologist - devised crime ID system
  • 1854Henri-Marie Lafontaine: Belgium -- International lawyer (Nobel 1913)
  • 1856[Marie] Louise Hens: Flemish actress (Two Orphans)
  • 1858Ethel Mary Smyth: Composer
  • 1863Cornelis A J van Dishoeck: Dutch publisher
  • 1864Phil May: Wortley Yorkshire, United Kingdom -- Cartoonist
  • 1866Hans von Seeckt: German General (Future of the Reich)
  • 1868Jose Vianna da Motta: Composer
  • 1873Ellen Anderson Glasgow: United States -- Novelist (Ancient Law, Pulitzer-1942)

Died on April 22

  • 0536Agapitus I: Italian Pope (535-36)
  • 1253Elias van Cortona: Italian General (1232-39), dies at about 53
  • 1355Eleonora Plantagenet: Daughter of King Edward II, dies at 36
  • 1462Gilbert of Lannoy: Master of Villerval / Tronchiennes / Santes
  • 1592Bartolommeo Ammanati: Italian Sculptor / architect, dies at 80
  • 1648Catharina Belgian van Nassau: Daughter of Willem, dies at 69
  • 1662John Tradescant: Traveller / gardener
  • 1672Georg Stiernhielm: Swed Scholar / Author / Poet (Hercules), dies at 73
  • 1699Hans A baron von Abschatz: Silesian poet, dies at 53
  • 1722Pieter Erberfeld: German / Thais Merchant on Java
  • 1776Johann Adolph Scheibe: German music theroist / composer, dies at 67
  • 1778James Hargreaves: Inventor (spinning jenny)
  • 1782Josef Ferdinand Norbert Seger: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1788Zacharias H Alewijn: Dutch poet, dies at 46
  • 1821John Crome [Old Crome]: English landscape Painter / etcher, dies at 52
  • 1827Thomas Rowlandson: Caricaturist
  • 1830Knud L Rahbek: Danish literary / historian, dies at 69
  • 1833Richard Trevithick: Inventor (steam locomotive), dies at 62
  • 1844Henri-Montan Berton: Composer, dies at 76
  • 1864Joseph Gilbert Totten: US Union General Major, dies at 76
  • 1865Francis Washburn: US Union Colonel / General Major, dies of injuries
  • 1883Octave Fouque: Composer, dies at 38
  • 1892Edouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo: Composer, dies at 69
  • 1901William Stubbs: Historian / Bishop
  • 1908Henry Campbell-Bannerman: British Premier (1905-08)
  • 1925Andre Caplet: Composer, dies at 46
  • 1929Odon Peter Jozsef de Mihalovich: Composer, dies at 86
  • 1933Frederick Henry Royce: Motorcar pioneer
  • 1944Mezio Agostini: Composer, dies at 68
  • 1946Harlan Fiske Stone: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1941-46), dies at 73