Events on May 23

  • 1059Henri I crowns his son compassionate King Philip I of France
  • 1275King Edward I of Engld orders cessation of persecution of French Jews
  • 1420Jews of Syria and Austria expelled
  • 1421Jews of Austria imprisoned and expelled
  • 1430Joan of Arc is captured at Compiegne and sold to the British
  • 1493King Charles VIII and Maximilian I of Austria signs Peace of Senlis
  • 1533King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon marriage declared null and void
  • 1536Pope Paul III installs Portugese inquisition
  • 1544German Emperor Charles V recognizes King Christian III of Denmark
  • 1555Giampietro Caraffa elected Pope Paul IV
  • 1568Battle at Heiligerlee: Dutch rebels beat Spanish, 100s killed
  • 1576Tycho Brahe given Hveen Island to build Uraniborg Observatory
  • 1611Matthias von Habsburg chosen King of Bohemia
  • 16182nd Defenestration of Prague; beginning of 30 Years War
  • 1618Imperial civil servants thrown out a window of Prague Castle
  • 1644Johan Mauritius van Nassau resigns as head of Civil rights activists
  • 1647Willem II sworn in as Viceroy of Holland
  • 1660King Charles II returns from exile sails from Scheveningen to England
  • 1667King Afonso VI of Portugal flees
  • 1706Battle of Ramillies-Marlborough defeats French; 17,000 killed
  • 1774Chestertown tea party occurs (tea dumped into Chester River)
  • 1785Benjamin Franklin announces his invention of bifocals
  • 1788SC becomes 8th state to ratify US constitution
  • 1853Buenos Aires gains independence from Argentina (reunited 1859)
  • 18613 fleeing slaves enter Fort Monroe Virginia
  • 1861Virginia citizens vote 3 to 1 in favor of secession
  • 1862Battle at Front Royal, Virginia
  • 1862Valley Campaign-Stonewall Jackson takes Ft Royal, Virginia
  • 1864Battle of Dallas, Georgia
  • 1864Battle of North Anna, Va, 1st of 3 days of fighting

Born on May 23

  • 1598Claude Mellan: French engraver / cartoonist / painter, baptized
  • 1617Elias Ashmole: Antiquary
  • 1620Pieter Neefs [the Younger]: Flemish painter
  • 1644Thomas Eisenhut: Composer
  • 1696Johann Caspar Vogler: Composer
  • 1710Francois-Gaspard Adam: French sculptor (garden sculptures)
  • 1718William Hunter: Obstetrician / medal writer
  • 1729Giuseppe Parini: Italian priest / poet (Il Giorno)
  • 1734Friedrich Anton Mesmer: Austria -- Physician / hypnotist (Mesmerism)
  • 1735Charles Joseph: Prince the Ligne, Belgian Field Marshal / author
  • 1737Louis Francois Chambray: Composer
  • 1741Andrea Lucchesi: Composer
  • 1753Giovanni Battista Viotti: Violonist / composer
  • 1754Andrea Appiana: Italian royal painter (Napoleon)
  • 1756Nicolas-Joseph Hullmandel: Composer
  • 1759Antoinio da Silva Leite: Composer
  • 1794Isaak-Ignaz Moscheles: Composer
  • 1795Charles Barry: Architect
  • 1799Thomas Hood: English poet / composer (Song of the Shirt)
  • 1812Henri A Esquiros: French poet / writer (Les Vierges Folles)
  • 1813Mason Brayman: Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1895
  • 1820James Buchanan Eads: United States -- Engineer / inventor (Eads Bridge-St. Louis)
  • 1824Ambrose Everett Burnside: Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1832Pieter J B C R van der Aa: Dutch Indologist / geographer
  • 1837James Sanks Brisbin: Bvt Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1892
  • 1843Pedro Miguel Marques y Garcia: Composer
  • 1848Helmuth J L von Moltke: German General / Chief of Staff (WWI)
  • 1848Otto Lilienthal: Pioneer aviator
  • 1851Antoni Stolpe: Composer
  • 1862William "Dummy" Hoy: Professional baseball player who lived to 99

Died on May 23

  • 1498Girolamo Savonarola: Dictator of Florence (1494-98), hanged at 45
  • 1648Luis de Nain: Painter
  • 1668Philips Wouwerman: Haarlems painter, buried
  • 1684Adriaen Backer: Amsterdams Painter buried at about 48
  • 1754John Wood: Architect / town planner
  • 1783James Otis: American lawyer
  • 1785William Woollett: Engraver
  • 1841Franz Xaver von Baader: German philosopher / theologist, dies at 76
  • 1842Jose de Espronceda y Delgado: Spanish revolutionary / poet, dies at 34
  • 1851Lucas Pieter Roodbaard: Architect, dies at 69
  • 1860Albert Richard Smith: Author / lecturer
  • 1867Archibald Alison: Scottish historian, dies at 74
  • 1875Johann Wilhelm Mangold: Composer, dies at 78
  • 1881Kit Carson: Frontiersman
  • 1881Leopold von Ranke: Historian
  • 1883Cyprian K Norwid: Polish Painter / Poet / playwright (Wanda)
  • 1887Ludwig Mathias Lindeman: Composer, dies at 74
  • 1891Ignace Xavier Joseph Leybach: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1895Franz E Neumann: German mineralogist / physicist, dies at 96
  • 1897Aleko Konstantinov: Bulgarian writer (To Chicago & Back), dies at 34
  • 1905Martinus W van AA Meerbeke: Head-editor (Time), dies at 75
  • 1906Henrik Johan Ibsen: Norwegian playwright (Doll House), dies at 78
  • 1926Hans Koessler: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1934Bonnie Parker: Outlaw (Bonnie & Clyde), killed in police ambush
  • 1934Clyde Barrow: Outlaw (Bonnie & Clyde), killed in police ambush
  • 1937John Davison Rockfeller: Industrialist, dies at 97 in Ormond Beach, Florida
  • 1938Philip Kleintjes: Republic leader, dies at 70
  • 1940Andrej N Rimski-Korssakov: Russian musicologist / Son of Nikolai
  • 1940Paul Nizan: French journalist / writer (Ce Soir / Aden Arabia), dies at 35
  • 1941Lord Herbert Austin: Motor manufacturer

Historical events on May 24

  • 1086Abbott Dauferio / Desiderius becomes Pope Victor III
  • 1153Malcolm IV becomes King of Scotland
  • 1300King Philip IV occupies Flanders, Earl Gwijde captured
  • 1370Hanzesteden signs peace treaty with Danish King Waldemar IV
  • 1487Imposter Lambert Simnel ceremony crowned as King Edward VI of Dublin
  • 1626Peter Minuet buys Manhattan from Indians for trinkets, valued at $24
  • 1653German Parliament selects Ferdinand II King of Austria
  • 1658Battle of Dunes (Spanish-French War) fought
  • 1660English King Charles II visits Netherlands
  • 1667French troops attack into Southern Netherlands
  • 1689English Parliament guarantees freedom of religion for Protestants
  • 1697English King Willem III travels through Northern Europe
  • 1738Methodist Church forms
  • 1809Dartmoor Prison opens to house French prisoners of war
  • 1815George Evans discovers Lachlan River, Australia
  • 1818Gen Andrew Jackson captures Pensacola Florida
  • 1824Pope Leo XII proclaims a universal jubilee
  • 1829Pope Pius VIII issues his program for pontificate
  • 1830"Mary Had A Little Lamb, " is written
  • 18301st passenger rail service in US (Baltimore & Elliots Mill, Maryland)
  • 1844Samuel FB Morse taps out "What hath God wrought" (1st telegraph message)
  • 1854Anthony Burns, slave, arrested by US Deputy marshals in Boston
  • 1854Lincoln University, Penn, 1st Black college in US forms by Prebyts
  • 1856Pottawatomie Massacre took place in Kansas
  • 1861Alexandria, VA occupied by Federal troops
  • 1861Maj General Benjamin Butler declares slaves "contraband of war"
  • 1862Beardslee field telegraph used for 1st time
  • 1862Westminster Bridge across Thames opens
  • 1866Berkeley, California named (for George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne)
  • 1870Memoria of Jackson Kemper, 1st Missionary Bishop in US

Born on May 24

  • 0015Julius Caesar Germanicus: Roman Commandant
  • 1544William Gilbert: Essex, England -- Physicist (researcher into magnetism)
  • 1605Nikon [Nikita Minin]: Patriarch of Russian-orthodox church
  • 1610Giovanni Battista Chinelli: Composer
  • 1619Philips Wouwermans: Dutch painter
  • 1650John Churchill: 1st Duke of Marlborough, English General strategist
  • 1677Alexandre de Villenueve: Composer
  • 1736Juan de Sesse y Balaguer: Composer
  • 1743Jean-Paul Marat: France -- Revolutionist
  • 1751Charles Emanuel II: King of Sardina (1796-1802)
  • 1753Oliver Cromwell: Burlington, New Jersey -- Black who served with Washington
  • 1754Giacomo Conti: Composer
  • 1767Joseph Ignaz Schnabel: Composer
  • 1781Louis-Francois Dauprat: Composer / horn player
  • 1794William Whewell: British philosopher (History of Inductive Science)
  • 1803Charles LJL Bonaparte: Corsican / French Prince of Canino / Musignano
  • 1807Cornelis E van Koetsveld: Vicar / literature
  • 1807Thomas Duncan: Painter
  • 1810Abraham Geiger: Theologian / author / Leader of Reform Judaism
  • 1811Charles Clark: Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1877
  • 1816Emanuel Leutze: United States -- Painter (Washington Crossing the Delaware)
  • 1816Robert Seaman Granger: (Union Army Bvt Major General, died in 1894)
  • 1819Victoria Alexandrine: Queen of Great Britain (1837-1901)
  • 1831Richard Hoffman: Composer
  • 1838Paul Laband: German lawyer
  • 1840Frederick Walker: Painter
  • 1841Charles Napier Henry: Painter
  • 1841Tito Mattei: Pianist / composer
  • 1850Ernest Albert Waterlow: Water-color painter
  • 1852Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham: Author / politician

Died on May 24

  • 1144Petronella: Wife of Earl Floris II the Vette of Holland / regent
  • 1543Nicolas Copernicus: Astronomer, dies in Poland
  • 1612Robert Cecil: 1st Earl of Salisbury / Prime Minister (1598-1612), dies at 48
  • 1665Maria de Jesus de Agreda [Maria Coronel]: Spanish franciscans
  • 1669Pieter Cuypers: South Netherlands lawyer, dies at 48
  • 1670Ferdinand II: Ruler of Toscane, dies at 59
  • 1696Albertine Agnes: Princess of Orange-Nassau, dies at 62
  • 1762Joseph Umstatt: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1773Jan Zach: Composer, dies at 73
  • 1792George Brydges: 1st Baron Rodney / Admiral
  • 1792Jakob M R Lenz: Writer (That Soldier)
  • 1804Simon Style: Fries medical / writer, dies at 73
  • 1826Friedrich Fesca: Composer, dies at 37
  • 1831Benjamin Carr: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1844William Crockford: Clubman / gambler
  • 1850Jane Porter: Novelist (Scottish Chiefs), dies at 74
  • 1851Stanko Vraz [Jakob Frass]: Slavic Poet (Grammatica), dies at 40
  • 1861Elmer Ellsworth: US warrior (Chicago Zouaves), shot to death at 23
  • 1861James T Jackson: US landlord (doodde EE Ellsworth), shot dead)
  • 1871Francisco Salvador Daniel: Composer, dies at 40
  • 1872Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Painter
  • 1876Henry Kingsley: English / Australian writer, dies at 46
  • 1879William Lloyd Garrison: Abolitionist (Liberator), dies at 73
  • 1881Samuel Palmer: Landscape painter
  • 1894William Joseph Westbrook: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1895Joseph Quinaux: Belgian painter, dies at 73
  • 1919Amado Nervo [Juan C Ruiz de Nervo]: Mexican poet, dies at 48
  • 1941Lancelot Holland: British Vice-Admiral ( (WWII / Hood), dies in battle
  • 1943Vladimir I Nemirovitch-Dantshenko: Russian playwright, dies at 84
  • 1948Alfred Kastner: Composer, dies at 78