Events on Jul 20

  • 0514St. Hormisdas elected as Pope succeeding Pope Sympowerus
  • 1031Henry I succeeds father Robert II as King of France
  • 1495French Viceroy of Naples Montpensier surrenders
  • 1498Emperor Maximilian names Albrecht Governor of the Netherlands
  • 1553Prime Minister John Dudley captured in Cambridge
  • 1608Reynier van Oldenbarnevelt marries Anna Weytzen in Delft
  • 1609Emperor Rudolf II grants Silezische protestants freedom of religion
  • 1619Gerardus Vossius resigns as Dutch regent States college leader
  • 1654Anglo-Portuguese treaty, Portugal comes under English control
  • 1749Earl of Chesterfield says "Idleness is only refuge of weak minds"
  • 1773Scottish settlers arrive at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada)
  • 1801Elisha Brown Jr pressed a 1,235 pound cheese ball at his farm
  • 1808Napoleon decrees all French Jews adopt family names
  • 1810Colombia declares independence from Spain
  • 1836Charles Darwin climbs Green Hill on Ascension
  • 1847German astronomer Theodor discovers Comet Brorsen-Metcalf
  • 1849Start of 1st Lancashire-Yorkshire clash at Hyde Park, Sheffield
  • 18551st train from Rotterdam to Utrecht in the Netherlands
  • 1858Fee 1st charged to see a baseball game (50 cents) (NY beats Brooklyn 22-18)
  • 1864Battle of Peachtree Creek-Atlanta Campaign
  • 1866Sea battle of Lissa-Austria vs. Italy
  • 18681st use of tax stamps on cigarettes
  • 1871British Columbia becomes 6th Canadian province
  • 1872Mahlon Loomis patents wireless radio
  • 18761st US intercollegiate track meet held, Saratoga, NY; Princeton wins
  • 1877Military shoots on stopped railroad workers in Balt, kills 9
  • 18781st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • 1881Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull, surrenders to federal troops
  • 1890"Gibbons Stamp Monthly" begins publishing
  • 1890Snow and hail in Calais, Maine

Born on Jul 20

  • 1304Francesco Petrarch: Italy -- Poet (Italia Mia)
  • 1513Gaspar Schetz: Dutch Treasurer General
  • 1519Innocent IX [Giovanni A Facchinetti]: 230th Catholic Pope (1591)
  • 1600Simon Ives: Composer
  • 1663Pierre Drevet: French engraver
  • 1720Ignaz Vitzthumb: Composer
  • 1726William Jones: Composer
  • 1744Henri Hamal: Composer
  • 1761Joseph Lefebvre: Composer
  • 1762Jakob Haibel: Composer
  • 1766Thomas Bruce: Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, British diplomat
  • 1779Ignaz Schuster: Composer
  • 1785Mahmud II: Sultan of Turkey (1808-39) / Westernizer / Reformer
  • 1793Aleksander Fredro: Polish comedy writer (Pan Jowiolski)
  • 1796Edward Hodges: Composer
  • 1803Jakob Zeugheer: Composer
  • 1803Thomas Lovell Beddoes: English poet
  • 1804Richard Owen: British zoologist
  • 1806John Sterling: Writer (Representative Victorian)
  • 1811James Bruce: Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, Governor (Jamaica)
  • 1814Ivan S Gagarin: Russian theologist
  • 1816William Bowman: English anatomist
  • 1819Paul Henrion: Composer
  • 1824Alexander Schimmelfennig: Prussia -- Brigadier General (Union volunteers)
  • 1836Thomas C Allbutt: English physiologist (Diseases of the Heart)
  • 1837Hans Sommer: Composer
  • 1847Max Liebermann: German impressionist painter
  • 1853Geo[rge] Poggenbeek: Dutch water colors painter
  • 1860Johannes Walter: German geologist (Denudation of the Wilderness)
  • 1864Erik Karlfeldt: Sweden -- Poet (Nobel 1918-refused; 1931-posthumous)

Died on Jul 20

  • 0833Ansegis / Ansegius: French abbot of Fontenelle / author, dies at about 63
  • 1031Robert II de Vrome: King of France (996-1031)
  • 1322Frederik II van Sierck: Bishop of Utrecht (1317-22)
  • 1573Lancelot of Brederode: Water beggar, beheaded
  • 1597Franciscus Raphelengius [French of Ravelingen]: Neth publisher
  • 1607Paulus Merula: Dutch lawyer / Historian (Historia Belgica), dies at 48
  • 1609Federico Zuccari: Italian Mannerist painter, dies at about 69
  • 1636John Oldham: Trader in Mass, murdered by indians
  • 1732Francesco Bartolomeo Conti: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1762Christoph Nichelsmann: German klavecinist / composer
  • 1766Isabelle Farnese: Queen of Spain
  • 1808Francois-Hippolyte Barthelemon: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1819John Playfair: Scottish geologist / mathematician
  • 1824Joan M Kemper: Lawyer (layed-out Civil Code)
  • 1825Joseph-Denis Doche: Composer, dies at 58
  • 1859Hans E Schack: Danish politician / writer (Fantasy)
  • 1866G F Berhard Riemann: German Mathematician (zeta-function)
  • 1868Antoine Prumier: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1868Jan Bedrich Kittl: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1881Thomas Fermor-Hesketh: English 1st Baron of Hesketh
  • 1888Henri Braekeleer: Flemish painter
  • 1898Yuri Arnold: Composer, dies at 86
  • 1903Leo XIII [Vincenzo G Pecci]: Pope (1878-1903), dies at 93
  • 1908Federico Chueca: Composer, dies at 62
  • 1914Leo van Gheluwe: Composer, dies at 76
  • 1923Pancho Villa [Doroteo Arango]: Mexican rebel, murdered at 55
  • 1927Ferdinand I VAM: King of Romania, dies at 61
  • 1936Arthur Battelle Whiting: Composer, dies at 75
  • 1936Jose Sanjurjo y Sacanell: Spanish General / high director
  • 1937Guglielmo Marconi: Ital engineer / Marquis (radio, Nobel 1909)

Historical events on July 21

  • 0230St. Pontianus begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 0365Alexandria hit by Earthquake; about 50,000 die
  • 0866John appointed Bishop of the kingdom
  • 0905Holy Roman Catholic Emperor Louis III captured
  • 0976Emperor Otto II gives Earl Leopold I, East Bavaria
  • 1320Count Louis of Nevers marries 8-year old Daughter of Philips V
  • 1542Pope Paul III begins inquisition against Protestants (Sactum Officium)
  • 1579Mechelen surrenders to Duke of Parma
  • 1588English fleet defeats Spanish armada
  • 1595Alvara Mendana discovers Marquesas Island
  • 1669John Lockes Constitution of English colony Carolina approved
  • 1730States of Holland put death penalty on "sodomy"
  • 1749Pieter Steyn becomes pension advisor of Holland
  • 1773Pope Clemens XIV bans Jesuits
  • 1798Napoleon Bonaparte wins Battle of Pyramids in Egypt
  • 1825Java Princess Dipo Negoro / Mangkubumi declare war on all non-islamics
  • 1831Belgium gains independence from Netherlands, Leopold I made King
  • 1846Mormons found 1st English settlement in California (San Joaquin Valley)
  • 18611st major battle of Civil War ends (Bull Run), Va-South wins
  • 1866Cholera-epidemic kills hundreds in London
  • 1867City Gardens on Folsom opens
  • 1880Compressed air accident kills 20 workers on Hudson River tunnel, New York
  • 1897Tate Gallery opens in England
  • 1898Spain cedes Guam to US
  • 1900Pope Leo XIII encyclical to Greek-Melkite rite
  • 1904After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway is completed
  • 1904Camille Jenatzy sets world auto speed record at 65.79 mph
  • 1919Dirigible crashes through bank skylight killing 13 (Chicago, Ill)
  • 1921Indians (9) andYankees (7) hit a record 16 doubles
  • 1923Phillies score 12 in 6th and beat Cubs 17-4

Born on July 21

  • 1515St Philippus Nerius [Philippo Neri]: Italian Merchant / priest
  • 1620Jean Picard: French astronomer
  • 1664Matthew Prior: English poet
  • 1676Anthony Collins: English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking)
  • 1693Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle: England, United Kingdom -- Minister of finance
  • 1706Pierre Lyonet: Zoologist / cryptologist (Anatomy of Wilgehoutrups)
  • 1748Louis-Henry Paisible: Composer
  • 1758Elizabeth Hamilton: Author (Cats: A Celebration)
  • 1762Willem GF Bentinck: Dutch Earl / politician / Organist
  • 1779Gottlob Wiedebein: Composer
  • 1797Franz Schoberlechner: Composer
  • 1802David Hunter: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1886
  • 1804Victor Schoelcher: Guadeloupe -- Abolished french slavery
  • 1810Henri V Regnault: French physicist / chemist
  • 1815Stewart Van Vliet: Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1901
  • 1816Paul Julius Baron von Reuter: Founded Reuters news service
  • 1817John Gilbert: Painter / illustrator
  • 1817Joseph K Barnes: Major General (Union Army), died in 1883
  • 1821Vasile Alecsandri: Romania -- Poet / Foreign Minister / diplomat
  • 1822Ludwig Theodore Gouvy: Composer
  • 1826James Gillpatrick Blunt: Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1828John Rutter Brooke: Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1832Henrietta Marie Morse King: Cattlewoman
  • 1856Harry A P Eyres: British diplomat (Constantinople, Albania)
  • 1856Louise Blanchard Bethune: 1st US woman architect
  • 1863C[harles] Aubrey Smith: London, England -- Actor (Prisoner of Zenda)
  • 1864Frances Folsom Cleveland: 1st lady (1885-89, 93-97)
  • 1865Robert Kahn: Composer
  • 1885Frances Parkinson Keyes: Novelist (Dinner at Antoine)
  • 1892Anton Schnack: German writer / poet

Died on July 21

  • 1160Peterus Lombardus: Italian Theologist / Bishop of Paris
  • 1425Manuel Paleologus: Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425) / writer
  • 1683Lord William Russell: English plotter against Charles II, beheaded
  • 1782Placidus Cajetan von Camerloher: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1796Robert Burns: Scottish Poet (Auld Lang Syne), dies at 37
  • 1821Maurice J M Prince de Broglie: Bishop of Ghent, dies at about 55
  • 1831Emil Aarestrup: Danish Physician / Poet (Ritornellen), dies at 55
  • 1861Francis Stebbins Bartow: Confederate Colonel, dies in battle at 44
  • 1870Josef Strauss: Austrian Composer (Dynamids), dies at 42
  • 1888Matthias J Scheeben: German Theologist (Natur und Gnade), dies at 53
  • 1891Franco Faccio: Italian Composer / conductor, dies at 51
  • 1910Johan Peter Selmer: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1917Christopher J Forster: British RAF-pilot / Captain, dies in battle
  • 1922Djemal Pasha: Dictator of Turkey, murdered
  • 1928Ellen A Terry: Brits actress / director (Imperial Theatre), dies at 81
  • 1943Charles William Paddock: 100m runner (1920 Olympics - Gold Medalist), dies at 42
  • 1944Gerrit van den Bosch: Led illegal Dutch CPN party, dies in Dachau
  • 1944Henning von Tresckow: General Major, "July 20th plotter", commits suicide
  • 1948Arshile Gorky: Abstract expressionist, dies at 43
  • 1948Donald Nichols Tweedy: Composer, dies at 58
  • 1950Albert Riemenschneider: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1957Bernard Spooner: US inventor (bulletproof jacket)
  • 1966Eugeen Calleen: Flemish sculptor, dies at 83
  • 1967Albert J Luthuli: President South Africa (ANC)
  • 1967Basil Rathbone: Actor (Sherlock Holmes), dies of heart attack at 75
  • 1967Jimmy Foxx: Baseball hall of famer (Detroit Tigers / 534 HRs), dies at 59
  • 1967Pierre Kemp: Dutch Poet (English paint box), dies at 80
  • 1972Jigme Dori Wangchuck: King of Bhutan
  • 1973Russell Hardie: Dies after long illness at 69
  • 1974Willem F K Hussem: Painter / Poet (Steltlopen on Sea), dies at 74