Events on Jul 21

  • 0230St. Pontianus begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 0365Alexandria hit by Earthquake; about 50,000 die
  • 0866John appointed Bishop of the kingdom
  • 0905Holy Roman Catholic Emperor Louis III captured
  • 0976Emperor Otto II gives Earl Leopold I, East Bavaria
  • 1320Count Louis of Nevers marries 8-year old Daughter of Philips V
  • 1542Pope Paul III begins inquisition against Protestants (Sactum Officium)
  • 1579Mechelen surrenders to Duke of Parma
  • 1588English fleet defeats Spanish armada
  • 1595Alvara Mendana discovers Marquesas Island
  • 1669John Lockes Constitution of English colony Carolina approved
  • 1730States of Holland put death penalty on "sodomy"
  • 1749Pieter Steyn becomes pension advisor of Holland
  • 1773Pope Clemens XIV bans Jesuits
  • 1798Napoleon Bonaparte wins Battle of Pyramids in Egypt
  • 1825Java Princess Dipo Negoro / Mangkubumi declare war on all non-islamics
  • 1831Belgium gains independence from Netherlands, Leopold I made King
  • 1846Mormons found 1st English settlement in California (San Joaquin Valley)
  • 18611st major battle of Civil War ends (Bull Run), Va-South wins
  • 1866Cholera-epidemic kills hundreds in London
  • 1867City Gardens on Folsom opens
  • 1880Compressed air accident kills 20 workers on Hudson River tunnel, New York
  • 1897Tate Gallery opens in England
  • 1898Spain cedes Guam to US
  • 1900Pope Leo XIII encyclical to Greek-Melkite rite
  • 1904After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway is completed
  • 1904Camille Jenatzy sets world auto speed record at 65.79 mph
  • 1919Dirigible crashes through bank skylight killing 13 (Chicago, Ill)
  • 1921Indians (9) andYankees (7) hit a record 16 doubles
  • 1923Phillies score 12 in 6th and beat Cubs 17-4

Born on Jul 21

  • 1515St Philippus Nerius [Philippo Neri]: Italian Merchant / priest
  • 1620Jean Picard: French astronomer
  • 1664Matthew Prior: English poet
  • 1676Anthony Collins: English philosopher (A discourse on free-thinking)
  • 1693Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle: England, United Kingdom -- Minister of finance
  • 1706Pierre Lyonet: Zoologist / cryptologist (Anatomy of Wilgehoutrups)
  • 1748Louis-Henry Paisible: Composer
  • 1758Elizabeth Hamilton: Author (Cats: A Celebration)
  • 1762Willem GF Bentinck: Dutch Earl / politician / Organist
  • 1779Gottlob Wiedebein: Composer
  • 1797Franz Schoberlechner: Composer
  • 1802David Hunter: Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1886
  • 1804Victor Schoelcher: Guadeloupe -- Abolished french slavery
  • 1810Henri V Regnault: French physicist / chemist
  • 1815Stewart Van Vliet: Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1901
  • 1816Paul Julius Baron von Reuter: Founded Reuters news service
  • 1817John Gilbert: Painter / illustrator
  • 1817Joseph K Barnes: Major General (Union Army), died in 1883
  • 1821Vasile Alecsandri: Romania -- Poet / Foreign Minister / diplomat
  • 1822Ludwig Theodore Gouvy: Composer
  • 1826James Gillpatrick Blunt: Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1828John Rutter Brooke: Bvt Major General (Union volunteers)
  • 1832Henrietta Marie Morse King: Cattlewoman
  • 1856Harry A P Eyres: British diplomat (Constantinople, Albania)
  • 1856Louise Blanchard Bethune: 1st US woman architect
  • 1863C[harles] Aubrey Smith: London, England -- Actor (Prisoner of Zenda)
  • 1864Frances Folsom Cleveland: 1st lady (1885-89, 93-97)
  • 1865Robert Kahn: Composer
  • 1885Frances Parkinson Keyes: Novelist (Dinner at Antoine)
  • 1892Anton Schnack: German writer / poet

Died on Jul 21

  • 1160Peterus Lombardus: Italian Theologist / Bishop of Paris
  • 1425Manuel Paleologus: Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425) / writer
  • 1683Lord William Russell: English plotter against Charles II, beheaded
  • 1782Placidus Cajetan von Camerloher: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1796Robert Burns: Scottish Poet (Auld Lang Syne), dies at 37
  • 1821Maurice J M Prince de Broglie: Bishop of Ghent, dies at about 55
  • 1831Emil Aarestrup: Danish Physician / Poet (Ritornellen), dies at 55
  • 1861Francis Stebbins Bartow: Confederate Colonel, dies in battle at 44
  • 1870Josef Strauss: Austrian Composer (Dynamids), dies at 42
  • 1888Matthias J Scheeben: German Theologist (Natur und Gnade), dies at 53
  • 1891Franco Faccio: Italian Composer / conductor, dies at 51
  • 1910Johan Peter Selmer: Composer, dies at 66
  • 1917Christopher J Forster: British RAF-pilot / Captain, dies in battle
  • 1922Djemal Pasha: Dictator of Turkey, murdered
  • 1928Ellen A Terry: Brits actress / director (Imperial Theatre), dies at 81
  • 1943Charles William Paddock: 100m runner (1920 Olympics - Gold Medalist), dies at 42
  • 1944Gerrit van den Bosch: Led illegal Dutch CPN party, dies in Dachau
  • 1944Henning von Tresckow: General Major, "July 20th plotter", commits suicide
  • 1948Arshile Gorky: Abstract expressionist, dies at 43
  • 1948Donald Nichols Tweedy: Composer, dies at 58
  • 1950Albert Riemenschneider: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1957Bernard Spooner: US inventor (bulletproof jacket)
  • 1966Eugeen Calleen: Flemish sculptor, dies at 83
  • 1967Albert J Luthuli: President South Africa (ANC)
  • 1967Basil Rathbone: Actor (Sherlock Holmes), dies of heart attack at 75
  • 1967Jimmy Foxx: Baseball hall of famer (Detroit Tigers / 534 HRs), dies at 59
  • 1967Pierre Kemp: Dutch Poet (English paint box), dies at 80
  • 1972Jigme Dori Wangchuck: King of Bhutan
  • 1973Russell Hardie: Dies after long illness at 69
  • 1974Willem F K Hussem: Painter / Poet (Steltlopen on Sea), dies at 74

Historical events on July 22

  • 0259Dionysius elected as Bishop of Rome, succeeding Sixtus II
  • 0260St. Dionysius begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1298English defeat Scots at Battle of Falkirk
  • 1306King Phillip the Fair, orders expulsion of Jews out of France
  • 1489"Tractate Niddah" a talmudic edition, 1st printed
  • 1489Treaty of Frankfurt
  • 1515Anna of Bohemia (12) marries Karel van Ferdinand of Austria
  • 1515Congress of Vienna settles issues between Poland and Holy Roman Empire
  • 1515Louis of Hungary (9) marries Maria of Bohemia and succession to Hungarian throne
  • 1535Christians captured in Tunis in uprising against Admiral Barbarossa
  • 1582Willem van Orange moves from Antwerp to Delft
  • 15872nd English colony forms on Roanoke Island off North Carolina
  • 1632Foundation laid in Madrid for Buen Retiro-palace for King Philip IV
  • 164810,000 Jews of Polannoe murdered in Chmielnick massacre
  • 1686City of Albany, New York chartered
  • 1691Battle at Aghrim: English / Dutch army beats France
  • 1729Diamonds found in Minas Geras Brazil
  • 1731Spain signs Treaty of Vienna
  • 1739Turks defeats Holy Roman Emp at Crocyka Yugoslavia and threaten Belgrade
  • 1775George Washington takes command of US troops
  • 1796Cleveland, Ohio, founded by General Moses Cleveland
  • 1812Duke of Wellington defeats French at Battle of Salamanca, Spain
  • 1859V E Walker takes 10-74 in an innings for England vs. Surrey
  • 1864Battle of Atlanta-Hood attacks Sherman, 8449 conf, 3641 US die
  • 1865V E Walker takes 10-104 in an innings for Middlesex vs. Lancs
  • 1893Katharine Lee Bates writes "America the Beautiful, " in Colorado
  • 1898Belgica crew see 1st sunrise in 1600 hrs-1st to endure Antarct winter
  • 1901Serbia reactivates diplomatic relations with Montenegro
  • 19125th Olympic games in Stockholm closes
  • 1916A bomb went off during a Preparedness Day parade in SF killing 10

Born on July 22

  • 1478Philip I [the Handsome]: 1st Habsburg King of Spain (1504-06)
  • 1597Virgilio Mazzocchi: Composer
  • 1621Anthony Ashley Cooper: 1st Earl of Shaftesbury / Minister (1660-73)
  • 1642Johann Quirsfeld: Composer
  • 1647Margaretha M Alacoque: French mystic / Saint
  • 1649Clement XI [Giovanni F Albani]: Italy -- Pope (1700-21)
  • 1651Ferdinand Tobias Richter: Composer
  • 1721Francois-Joseph Krafft: Composer
  • 1784Friedrich W Bessel: German astronomer (star parallax, Bessel Function)
  • 1807Karolina Pawlowa: Writer
  • 1820Louis Powell Harvey: Governor (Union), died in 1862
  • 1822Gregor Mendel: Monk / geneticist, discoverer of laws of heredity
  • 1822Hamilton Prioleau Bee: Brigadier General (Confederate Army) died in 1897
  • 1822John George Walker: Major General (Confederate Army), died in 1893
  • 1830Herbert Stanley Oakeley: Composer
  • 1830William Sooy Smith: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1916
  • 1833Benjamin Hanby: Composer
  • 1834Daniel McCook, Jr.: Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1864
  • 1849Emma Lazarus: Jewish poet ("New Colossus"-base of Statue of Liberty)
  • 1853Victor Roger: Composer
  • 1871Akos Buttykai: Composer
  • 1872David D Salas: Antillian writer (Josefina)
  • 1873Ettore Pozzoli: Composer
  • 1878Lucien Febvre: French historian (Un destin: Martin Luther)
  • 1879Gustaf Heintze: Composer
  • 1882Edward Hopper: US painter (House by the Railroad)
  • 1887Gustav Hertz: German quantum physicist (Nobel 1925)
  • 1889Frederick Preston Search: Composer
  • 1892Arthur Seyss-Inquart: Austrian chancellor (1930s) / war criminal
  • 1894O M Graf: Writer

Died on July 22

  • 1035Robert II / I: Duke of Normandy
  • 1387French Ackerman: Ghent rebel / leader of Reisers, murdered at about 57
  • 1461Charles VII: King of France (1422-61), dies at 58
  • 1477Adolf van Egmond: Duke of Gelre / Earl of Zutphen, dies in battle at 39
  • 1497Francesco Botticini: Italian painter, dies at about 52
  • 1499Neithart Fox [Jonker Fox]: German passage leader, slain in battle
  • 1635Pietro Antonio Tamburini: Composer, dies at 45
  • 1676Clement X [Emilio Altieri]: Italian Pope (1670-76), dies at 86
  • 1786Vaclav Kalous: Composer, dies at 71
  • 1794Jean-Benjamin de La Borde: Composer, dies at 59
  • 1802Marie-Francois-Xavier Bichat: A founder of histology
  • 1826Giuseppe Piazzi: Monk / Mathematician (found 1st asteroid), dies at 80
  • 1840Josef Jawurek: Composer, dies at 83
  • 1848Karl Guhr: Composer, dies at 60
  • 1861Barnard Elliot Bee: US Confederate Brigadier General, dies at 37
  • 1863Carl Schuberth: Composer, dies at 52
  • 1864James Birdseye Mcpherson: US Union General Major, dies in battle at 35
  • 1864William Henry Talbot Walker: Confederate General Major, dies in battle at 47
  • 1868Zikmund Michal Kolesovsky: Composer, dies at 51
  • 1880Anna Caroline Oury: Composer, dies at 72
  • 1909D v Liliencron: Writer, dies at 65
  • 1929Bror Beckman: Composer, dies at 63
  • 1929Edouard baron Empain: Belgian builder (Heliopolis), dies at 76
  • 1932Roosje Vos: Dutch trade union leader, dies at 71
  • 1932Roses Fox: Trade union leader, dies at 71
  • 1934John Dillinger: Shot dead at Biograph Theater in Chicago, at 33
  • 1950William LM King: Premier of Canada (1921-30, 35-48), dies at 75
  • 1952Antonio Maria Valencia: Composer, dies at 49
  • 1952August Balthazar: Belgian politician, dies at 58
  • 1953Cy Kendall: Actor (Mysteries of Chinatown), dies at 55